lactose

nly about 1/3 of the worldwide adult human population can digest lactose, the sugar found in the milk of mammals. In this activity you will explore the cultural reasons behind this phenomenon.  In order to digest lactose, humans need to produce the enzyme, lactase, in their small intestines.  Lactase digests the disaccharide lactose into the monosaccharides, glucose and galactose.  If a person does not have the ability to produce the lactase enzyme, the undigested lactose goes from the small intestine to the large intestine, where it is digested by bacteria through fermentation. That process results in the production of various gases and acids that can cause discomfort.

lactase.png

The genetic switch that regulates the expression of the lactase gene is active in babies, but not in most human adults. Individuals who are lactose tolerant (or lactase persistent) have a mutation in the lactase switch that keeps the switch turned on into adulthood, so they continue to be lactose tolerant. 

LactaseSwitch.png

STEP 1

Watch the biointeractive movie on the evolution of lactose tolerance: Got lactase? Coevolution of Genes and Culture. Answer the assessment questions that pop up as the movie runs.  At the end of the movie, the interactive will generate a report with your answers.  You must submit the report to the assignment link in canvas.  The report will only be graded for completion. (2 pts) 

Got Lactase? Coevolution of Genes and Culture movie with Interactive Assessment:  HHMI Got Lactase? Interactive Movie. (Links to an external site.)

 

STEP 2

Complete a two-part worksheet with a pedigree analysis and DNA sequence analysis and upload your text answers to canvas in the assignment link (10 pts).  

You will analyze the Finnish family pedigree that was presented in the Got Lactase? movie to understand the pattern of inheritance of lactose tolerance and intolerance. You will also examine portions of the DNA sequence near the lactase gene to identify the specific mutation associated with lactose tolerance.

 

 

 

 

 

prompt #1:

Are you lactose tolerant or intolerant? What is it, biologically, that makes you that way?  Based on what you know about how this trait is inherited, what do you know about your genotype and the possible genotypes of your parents?

Voicethread prompt #2:

Examine the map from the movie (below) or go to the following website to see lactose intolerance statistics by county:  https://milk.procon.org/lactose-intolerance-by-country/ (Links to an external site.)

lactosetolerantmap.png

Which regions of the world have the highest lactose tolerance? Which have the lowest?  Where would you expect to find evidence of early cultures using animal milk as a food source?  Why is lactose tolerance much higher in some groups and extremely low in others? 

 

 

 
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genetics

Listen carefully to the audio lecture for this lab: https://youtu.be/vR-pRiZDwGE

there is the PowerPoint without audio if you need to review it:

Then review the background information in the Genetics Soap opera This information is necessary for understanding how to do the module.

Complete the Genetics Soap Opera Student Worksheet and upload the completed document as a word file

 

 

part B 

Comment about why it is important to understand genetics in our everyday life

comment how what you learned about genetics in this class is relevant to you

 
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cancer

  1. Choose TWO prompts to answer.  Each prompt will start off with an article from a regular news/blog site.  Read the article and do some research on the science in the article (I will guide you as to what to focus on through the questions in each prompt).  Answer ALL the questions in the prompts.
  2. Submit your assignment via Voice Thread so that you can use whichever method (whether it’s a power point or word document or video or recording to answer)
  3. Make sure your answers are complete!

 

Prompt 1: Cancer

  • Article: Louisiana Chemical Corridor is the country’s largest hot spot for toxic air, cancer risk (Links to an external site.)
  • Summarize the article.
  • Critique the article: using techniques you have practiced in week 1, determine the credibility of this article.
  • Look up science – to help you with this, here are some questions to consider:
    • What are cells?
    • What are the cell check points?
    • What causes cells to be cancerous?
    • Who gets cancer?
    • Do all living things get cancer?
    • We often hear that someone who has cancer has the gene for cancer.  This statement is NOT true.  Make an educated guess to explain why this statement is incorrect.
  • Why would it be important for you to understand cancer in a science grounded way?
  • Imagine you are helping someone who is going through cancer or recently received a cancer diagnosis – what resources/website that are about the science (not support for cancer survivors) can you share to that person?
  • At the start of the semester, you shared your plans for your career or general interest.  How can this particular information about this article and the science you’ve learned affect your personal trajectory in the career you are choosing or lives you are leading.  (In other words, how can you make this particular learning personal to you)
  • Finally, cite all the resources you used for this prompt.

 

Prompt 2: Three Parent IVF

  • Article: Australia Moves Ahead Cautiously with 3 Parent IVF (Links to an external site.)
  • Summarize the article:
  • Critique the article: using techniques you have practiced in week 1, determine the credibility of this article.
  • Look up science – to help you with this, here are some questions to consider:
    • What are sex cells? How do male sex cells differ from female sex cells?
    • What is DNA? Where can one’s DNA be found in a cell?
    • What does “three embryo system” mean?
    • Is this legal? Is this ethical?
    • What are reproductive assistive technologies?
  • Why would it be important for you to understand cancer in a science grounded way?
  • Can this be the next type of reproductive assistive technology in the future? (before you answer this, do a quick search on the history of IVF and how old the oldest person born of IVF is!)
  • At the start of the semester, you shared your plans for your career or general interest.  How can this particular information about this article and the science you’ve learned affect your personal trajectory in the career you are choosing or lives you are leading.  (In other words, how can you make this particular learning personal to you)
  • Finally, cite all the resources you used for this prompt.

 

Prompt 3: Covid-19

  • Article: America is in the “Figure It Out Yourself” Era of the Pandemic (Links to an external site.)
  • Summarize the article.
  • Critique the article: using techniques you have practiced in week 1, determine the credibility of this article.
  • Look up science – to help you with this, here are some questions to consider:
    • What is a virus and how does it differ from a human cell?
    • Based on one of the few things shared with you early this semester, determine whether viruses are considered alive or not.
    • What is Covid-19?
    • What are vaccines? How do vaccines work?
    • There are many concerns/worries about vaccines.  Cite at least three of them.
    • There is so much confusion about vaccinating against Covid-19.  Help tease out one or two reasons why.
  • Why would it be important for you to understand cancer in a science grounded way?
  • Imagine you are talking to someone who is asking your thoughts about Covid-19 vaccination.  What will you say to that person? Why? (and you are welcome to be honest, there are no points loss for telling the truth!)
  • At the start of the semester, you shared your plans for your career or general interest.  How can this particular information about this article and the science you’ve learned affect your personal trajectory in the career you are choosing or lives you are leading.  (In other words, how can you make this particular learning personal to you)
  • Finally, cite all the resources you used for this prompt.

 

Prompt 4: Brain-body connection

  • Article: The Brain Practices New Tasks While We Sleep (Links to an external site.)
  • Summarize the article.
  • Critique the article: using techniques you have practiced in week 1, determine the credibility of this article.
  • Look up science – to help you with this, here are some questions to consider:
    • Find some cool information about the brain.
    • What is the brain made of and what are the regions of the brain and their specific parts?
    • Mental illness has been in many minds lately (especially with the massacres that have happened as of late).  What do you think is happening to the brain that leads to poor mental health?
    • I personally practice mindfulness and it is one of the well researched strategies to promote increased mental health.  Do a quick research to why.
    • What can sleep do to help your brain learn? And what do you think sleep does for your mental health?
  • Why would it be important for you to understand cancer in a science grounded way?
  • Reflect on your personal sleep habits.  Do you get enough sleep? Why or why not? Do you feel rested after a night’s rest? Can you see a connection between your sleep and your ability to retain information?
  • At the start of the semester, you shared your plans for your career or general interest.  How can this particular information about this article and the science you’ve learned affect your personal trajectory in the career you are choosing or lives you are leading.  (In other words, how can you make this particular learning personal to you)
  • Finally, cite all the resources you used for this prompt.

 

Prompt 5: Your assignment, your choice!

  • Choose a recent article (from 2022) that exhibits an intersection between real life and biology/science.  There’s lots to choose from. The recent overturned Roe V Wade is one of them.  Side note: the effects on IVF embryos when abortion is no longer legal in many states is going to be really interesting…  Another example is the growing cases of monkeypox around the world and what this means for us!
  • Find the necessary biology for you to have a grounded and basic understanding of the science in the article.
  • Why would it be important for you to understand cancer in a science grounded way?
  • At the start of the semester, you shared your plans for your career or general interest.  How can this particular information about this article and the science you’ve learned affect your personal trajectory in the career you are choosing or lives you are leading.  (In other words, how can you make this particular learning personal to you)
  • Finally, cite all the resources you used for this prompt.

 

 
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Module 6

Use apa cite I sent files of directions and steps thank you 

 
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