In October 2019, APA presented the 7th edition of its Publication Manual which replaces the 6th edition published in 2009.
The new standards seek to keep up with the changes that have taken place in the academic world, where the citation of online material has become more common, the search for an inclusive language has gained greater importance and the research has received the addition of new methods and technologies.
APA standards are used, in general, in citations, references, tables, and tables. This guide from Courseworkgeeks.com will focus on citations, which are the elements that cause the most doubts in most authors.
The quote is when the author of the academic text uses the ideas of other authors to highlight what he is saying within its content.
They should be done whenever the author wants to emphasize something, using concepts and terms that are not his. For this, it is necessary to follow a series of rules pre-established in the APA standards.
Typically, citations are formed by the surname of the cited author, the publication date of the work, and the pages from which the original sentence was taken. At the end of the academic work, the work in question must be referenced, also following a series of rules.
Check below how to quote using APA standards
Direct citations (books, articles, and academic papers)
These are the original phrases of the basic author’s work. They must contain the last name of the author, as well as the date of publication. If it is less than 40 words, the sentence must be included in the main text in quotation marks. Those that exceed this quantity must be written in a new block format, with 1.25 cm indentation, size and font equal to the text, and simple spacing. The location of the edition is no longer used in references
Example direct quote with less than 40 words
According to SILVA (2010, p.42) “Psychology is a science that studies the mental behavior of human beings”
Or: According to SILVA (2010) “Psychology is a science that studies the mental behavior of human beings” (p.42)
Example direct quote with more than 40 words
“Psychology is a science that studies the mental behavior of human beings. For the exercise of this area, training in psychology is required, as well as the issuance of a CRP. This numbering serves as a credential that proves that the psychologist is able to practice the profession (Silva, 2010, p.42). ”
Direct citation of internet material
In the case of citations of web content, it is necessary to inform both the name of the author, the year of publication, and the number of pages in parentheses. For materials that do not have pagination, you must use the paragraph number or header, or section name.
For people with osteoarthritis, “painful joints must be moved daily by a wide range of movements to maintain flexibility and decrease cartilage deterioration” (Gecht-Silver & Duncombe, 2015, section Osteoarthritis).
In the references, however, entries must be made through the website and not through the paragraph or section. Also, in URL references, they no longer need to be preceded by the expression: “Retrieved from:”, unless a recovery date is required. Also in the references, the codes Digital Object Identified (DOI), appear in the form of URL.
Example URL references
Before: Harrison JJ, Ceri H, Yerly J, Stremick CA, Hu Y, Martinuzzi R. Turner RJ. The use of microscopy and three-dimensional visualization to assess the structure of microbial biofilms cultured in the Calgary Biofilm Device. Biol Proc Online: 194-215. Retrieved from: http://www.biologicalprocedures.com/bpo/arts/1/127/m127.pdf
Now: Harrison JJ, Ceri H, Yerly J, Stremick CA, Hu Y, Martinuzzi R. Turner RJ. The use of microscopy and three-dimensional visualization to assess the structure of microbial biofilms cultured in the Calgary Biofilm Device. Biol Proc Online: 194-215. http://www.biologicalprocedures.com/bpo/arts/1/127/m127
Example of DOI references
Before: http://www.biologicalprocedures.com/bpo/arts/1/127/m127. doi: 10.1251 / bpo 127
Now: http://doi.org/ 10.1251 / bpo127
Indirect citation (books, articles, and academic papers)
Indirect citation is when the writer describes, in his own words, the ideas and concepts of the basic author. He can either make a reference or paraphrase the other author. Here the same surname and year rule is followed, and numbering is not required.
Furthermore, in this type of quote, there is no minimum or maximum of words. However, it is necessary that the editor be attentive so that the passage is not too long and the quote ends up being lost.
According to SILVA (2017), it is possible to see an increase in the number of cases of disorders such as depression and anxiety. In general, it is observed that this happens, mainly, due to the running routine of the individuals, as well as the lack of professional monitoring.
In many cases, the writer needs to use a passage that contains a phrase from another work. Called from secondary sources or quote from the citation, this form of reference must also follow APA standards.
You must put the name of the author of the original work, followed by the year (if found) and then the term “as quoted in” if the article or book is in Portuguese, and “as cited in” if they are in English. Then, you must enter the author, year, and page of the work you are consulting. In the references just put the data of the consulting work.
Examples citation of the quote in Portuguese:
Brazil has witnessed an increasing number of cases of stress, depression, and anxiety among young people of the Millennial Generation (ALMEIDA, 2016 as quoted in SILVA, 2017, p. 734).
Brazil has witnessed an increasing number of cases of stress, depression, and anxiety among the youth of the Millennial Generation (ALMEIDA, 2016 as cited in SILVA, 2017, p. 734).
Citation with an author
The name of the author of the consulting work can be placed either inside or outside parentheses, always with the first letter capitalized and accompanied by the year of publication of the material. The same goes for the reference, which must also contain the year and the publisher that published the work.
In the case of books, articles, or scientific papers removed from the internet, the reference must also include the link to access the material, after “Available at:”. This rule is valid for materials with different numbers of authors.
Example in the quote:
Silva (1999) or (Silva, 1999)
Citation with two authors
In the case of works with two authors, the surnames must be placed according to the order of the original material, always with the first capital letter and followed by the year of publication. The reference rules remain the same for works with an author.
Almeida e Silva (2016) or (Almeida & Silva, 2016)
Citation with three or more authors
From the first citation, write only the name of the first author with the year of publication and “et al”.
In the text: Herrison JJ et al. (2016) or (Herrison JJ et al. 2006)
In References: Herrison JJ, Cerri H, Yerly, Stremick CA, Martinuzzi R, Turner RJ (2006)
Quote with several authors corroborating the same idea
In many cases, the writer may choose to use several authors who follow the same idea. Here, it is necessary to put the author’s last name and year of each cited work, separated by semicolons and inside parentheses. The order must be the same as the references.
In references, up to 20 names of authors are allowed to be entered before including an ellipsis (three dots). Previously, the ellipsis was applied from the 7th author’s name.
Example in text 1:
Currently, it is noticed that the growth of cases of disorders such as depression and anxiety, also generated an increase in the demand for medicines to treat these problems, without the proper medical prescription (Silva, 2016; Almeida, 2015; Gomes, Pereira & Alves, 2016).
Example in text 2:
It can be said that the increase in cases of depression is mainly due to the lack of debate on the subject among the population, since Silva (2017), Almeida and Gomes (2016) and Pereira ( 2015) has pointed out that there are not enough state campaigns.
Citation with authors with the same surname
It is also very common that many authors have the same surname. According to APA rules, to organize these citations, it is necessary to place the initials of the consulted author before the surname and followed by the year of publication of the work. You can put the information both inside and outside parentheses.
Example in the quote:
EC Silva (2005) or (EC Silva, 2005)
AG Silva and Almeida (2008) or (AG Silva & Robles, 2008)
Citation by the same author with several publication dates
Another very common case is that the same work can be republished in different years. If the editor consults these different versions, he must quote the name of the author (always with the first capital letter), followed by the years of publication of the work, in parentheses.
Example in the text:
According to Silva (2014, 2015, 2016, 2017), to combat the increase in cases of mental disorders it is necessary not only to encourage scientific research within this area but also to stimulate debate among the population.
Institutional authorship quote
It is generally used when data from government agencies, entities, corporations, and associations are cited. In the first citation, the name of the institution must be written out, followed by the year of publication of the work. Subsequent citations include the abbreviation of the name and the year.
Example 1st citation
Brazilian Institute of Corporate Governance (IBGC) (2017) or (Brazilian Institute of Corporate Governance (IBGC, 2014).
Example of subsequent quotes from
IBGC (2014) or (IBGC, 2014).
These are the most used quotes within academic papers. It is important to note that the APA rules are generally used only for citations and references. Remember, if you have any problems in formatting your paper in the APA 7th edition or any other formats, our experts are always ready and waiting to help you.