Assignment #1: Quantitative Analysis

Assignment #1: Quantitative Analysis
The dataset to use to complete this assignment  is “MN Admission” dataset
Assignment #1: Quantitative Analysis
For this assignment, you should choose one dataset from the list/links below. You should then analyze the dataset you chose using Excel Analysis ToolPak or RStudio (for bonus points)
Six Datasets to select and use for analysis in this class :
Minnesota Healthcare Database.xlsx
Medicare National Data by County
MN Hospital Report Data by Care Unit FY2013
MN HCCIS Imaging Procedures 2013
MEPS Dental Files
MEPS Inpatient Stay Database
You should develop an analysis report, in five main sections, including (1) Introduction, (2) Analysis (including research questions/objective, data set used, research method, and analysis steps), (3) Results (tables, graphs, and discussion of results), (4) Conclusion and health policy recommendations. This is a 5-6 page individual project report.
Here are the main steps for this assignment.
Step 1: You submitted a topic you plan to use for this assignment in week 1. If the Professor has approved that topic for you to use then carry on. Assignment #1: Quantitative Analysis .
Step 2: Develop the research question for that approved topic. Then, select the data set you could use to answer the research question, plan the research method you would use, the tables and graphs you would create using the data you have analyzed, and the analysis steps you would take. Refer to the instructions on the Report Structure below.
Step 3:  Run the analysis using Microsoft EXCEL Analysis ToolPak (or RStudio if that is the software you chose in Week 1) and report the findings based on the instructions below.
The Report Structure:
Start with the
1. Cover page (1 page, including running head).
Please look at the example http://www.apastyle.org/manual/related/sample-experiment-paper-1.pdf (you can download the file from the class) and http://www.umgc.edu/library/libhow/apa_tutorial.cfm to learn more about the APA style.
Your title page should include:
Title, this is the approved topic by your instructor.
Student name
Class name
Instructor name
Date
2. Introduction
Introduce the problem or topic being investigated. Include relevant background information, for example;
Indicates why this is an issue or topic worth researching;
Highlight how others have researched this topic or issue (whether quantitatively or qualitatively), and
Specify how others have operationalized this concept and measured these phenomena
Note: Introduction should not be more than one or two paragraphs.
Literature Review
There is no need for a literature review in this assignment
3. Research Question or Research Hypothesis
What is the Research Question or Research Hypothesis?
***Just in time information: Here are a few points for Research Question or Research Hypothesis
There are basically two kinds of research questions: testable and non-testable. Neither is better than the other, and both have a place in applied research.
Examples of non-testable questions are:
How do managers feel about the reorganization?
What do residents feel are the most important problems facing the community?
Respondents’ answers to these questions could be summarized in descriptive tables and the results might be extremely valuable to administrators and planners. Business and social science researchers often ask non-testable research questions. The shortcoming with these types of questions is that they do not provide objective cut-off points for decision-makers.

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In order to overcome this problem, researchers often seek to answer one or more testable research questions. Nearly all testable research questions begin with one of the following two phrases:
Is there a significant difference between …?
Is there a significant relationship between …?
For example:
Is there a significant relationship between the age of managers? and their attitudes towards the reorganization?
A research hypothesis is a testable statement of opinion. It is created from the research question by replacing the words “Is there” with the words “There is,” and also replacing the question mark with a period. The hypotheses for the two sample research questions would be:
There is a significant relationship between the age of managers and their attitudes towards the reorganization.
It is not possible to test a hypothesis directly. Instead, you must turn the hypothesis into a null hypothesis. The null hypothesis is created from the hypothesis by adding the words “no” or “not” to the statement. For example, the null hypotheses for the two examples would be:
There is no significant relationship between the age of managers
and their attitudes towards the reorganization.
There is no significant difference between white and minority residents
with respect to what they feel are the most important problems facing the community. Assignment #1: Quantitative Analysis .
All statistical testing is done on the null hypothesis…never the hypothesis. The result of a statistical test will enable you to either:
1) reject the null hypothesis, or
2) fail to reject the null hypothesis. Never use the words “accept the null hypothesis.”
*Source: StatPac for Windows Tutorial. (2017). User’s Guide; Formulating Hypotheses from Research Questions. Retrieved May 17, 2019 from https://statpac.com/manual/index.htm?turl=formulatinghypothesesfromresearchquestions.htm
What does significance really mean?
“Significance is a statistical term that tells how sure you are that a difference or relationship exists.  To say that a significant difference or relationship exists only tells half the story.  We might be very sure that a relationship exists, but is it a strong, moderate, or weak relationship?  After finding a significant relationship, it is important to evaluate its strength.  Significant relationships can be strong or weak.  Significant differences can be large or small.  It just depends on your sample size.
To determine whether the observed difference is statistically significant, we look at two outputs of our statistical test:
P-value: The primary output of statistical tests is the p-value (probability value). It indicates the probability of observing the difference if no difference exists.
The p-value from above example, 0.9926, indicates that we DO NOT expect to see a meaningless (random) difference of 5% or more in ‘hospital beds’ only about 993 times in 1000 there is no difference (0.9926*1000=992.6 ~ 993).
Note: This is an example from the week1 exercise.
The p-value from above example, 0.0001, indicates that we’d expect to see a meaningless (random) ‘number of the employees on payer’ difference of 5% or more only about 0.1 times in 1000 (0.0001 * 1000=0.1).
CI around Difference: A confidence interval around a difference that does not cross zero also indicates statistical significance. The graph below shows the 95% confidence interval around the difference between hospital beds in 2011 and 2012 (CI: [-40.82 ; 40.44]):
CI around Difference: A confidence interval around a difference that does not cross zero also indicates statistical significance. The graph below shows the 95% confidence interval around the difference between hospital beds in 2011 and 2012 (CI: [-382.16 ; 125.53]):
The boundaries of this confidence interval around the difference also provide a way to see what the upper [40.44] and lower bounds [-40.82].
As a summary:
“Statistically significant means a result is unlikely due to chance.
The p-value is the probability of obtaining the difference we saw from a sample (or a larger one) if there really isn’t a difference for all users.
Statistical significance doesn’t mean practical significance. Only by considering context can we determine whether a difference is practically significant; that is, whether it requires action.
The confidence interval around the difference also indicates statistical significance if the interval does not cross zero. It also provides likely boundaries for any improvement to aide in determining if a difference really is noteworthy.
With large sample sizes, you’re virtually certain to see statistically significant results, in such situations, it’s important to interpret the size of the difference”(“Measuring U”, 2019).
*Resource
Measuring U. (2019). Statistically significant. Retrieved May 17, 2019 from: https://measuringu.com/statistically-significant/
Small sample sizes often do not yield statistical significance; when they do, the differences themselves tend also to be practically significant; that is, meaningful enough to warrant action.
4. Research Method
Discuss the Research Methodology (in general). Describe the variable or variables that are being analyzed. Identify the statistical test you will select to analyze these data and explain why you chose this test.  Summarize your statistical alternative hypothesis. This section includes the following sub-sections:
a) Describe the Dataset
Example:  The primary source of data will be HOSPITAL COMPARE MEDICARE DATA (citation). This dataset provides information on hospital characteristics, such as: Number of staffed beds, ownership, system membership, staffing by nurses and non-clinical staff, teaching status, percentage of discharge for Medicare and Medicaid patients, and information regarding the availability of specialty and high-tech services, as well as Electronic Medical Record (EMR) use (Describe dataset in 2-3 lines, Google the dataset and find the related website to find more information about the data).
Also, describe the sample size; for example, “The writer is using Medicare data-2013, this data includes 3000 obs. for all of the hospitals in the US.”
b) Describe Variables
Next, review the database you selected and select a variable or variables that are a “best-fit.”  That is, choose a variable that quantitatively measures the concept or concepts articulated in your research question or hypothesis.
Return to your previously stated Research Question or Hypothesis and evaluate it considering the variables you have selected. (See the sample Table 1).
Table 1. List of variables used for the analysis
Variable
Definition
Description of data code
Source
Year
Total Hospital Beds
Total facility beds set up and staffed at the end of the reporting period
Numeric
MN Data
2013
….
…..
Source: UMGC, 2019
***Just in time information:
To cite a dataset, you can go with two approaches:
First, look at the note in the dataset for example;
Medicare National Data by County. (2012). Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care
Second, use the online citation, for example:
Zare, H., (2019, May). MN Hospital Report Data. Data posted in University of Maryland University College HMGT 400 online classroom, archived at http://campus.umgc.edu
See two examples describing the variables from Minnesota Data:
Table 2. Definition of variables used in the analysis
Variable
Definition
Description
of code
Source
Year
hospital_beds
Total facility beds set up and staffed at the end of the reporting period
Numeric
MN data
2013
year
FY
Categorical
MN data
2013
Source: UMGC, 2019
c) Describe the Research Method for Analysis
First, describe the research method as general (e.g., this is a quantitative method and then explain this method in about one paragraph. If you have this part in the introduction, you do not need to add it here).
Then, explain the statistical method you plan to use for your analysis (Refer to content in week 3 on Biostatistics for information on various statistical methods you can choose from).
Example:
Hypothesis:  AZ hospitals are more likely to have lower readmission rates for PN compared to CA.
Research Method:  To determine whether Arizona hospitals are more likely to have lower readmission rate than California, we will use a t-test, to determine whether differences across hospital types are statistically significant (You can change the test depends on your analysis). Assignment #1: Quantitative Analysis .
d) Describe statistical package
Add one paragraph for the statistical package, e.g., Excel or RStudio.
5. Results
Discuss your findings considering the following tips:
▪ Why you needed to see the distribution of data before any analysis (e.g., check for outliers, finding the best fit-test; for example, if the data had not a normal distribution, you can’t use the parametric test, etc., so just add 1 or 2 sentences).
▪ Did you eliminate outliers? (Please write 1 or 2 sentences, if applicable).
▪ How many observations do you have in your database and how many for selected variables, report % of missing.
▪ When you are finished with this, go for the next steps:
Present the results of your statistical analysis; include any relevant statistical information (summary tables, including N, mean, std. dev.). Make sure to completely and correctly name all your columns and rows, tables, and variables. For this part you could have at least 1-2 tables and 1-2 figures (depending on your variables bar-chart, pi-chart, or scatter-plot), you can use a table like this:
Table 3. Descriptive analysis to compare % of BL in Medicare beneficiary, MD vs. VA- 2013
Variable
Obs.
Mean
SD
P-value
Per of Lipid in MD
24
83.20
2.32
0.4064
Per of Lipid in VA
124
82.69
4.41
Source: UMGC, 2019
When you have tables and plots ready, think about your finding and state the statistical conclusion.  That is, do the results present evidence in favor or the null hypothesis or evidence that contradicts the null hypothesis?
6. Conclusion and Discussion
Review your research questions or hypothesis.
How has your analysis informed this question or hypothesis?  Present your conclusion(s) from the results (presented above) and discuss the meaning of this conclusion(s) considering the research question or hypothesis presented in your introduction.
At the end of this section, add one or two sentences and discuss the limitations (including biases) associated with this analysis and any other statements you think are important in understanding the results of this analysis.
References
Include a reference page listing the bibliographic information for all sources cited in this report. This information should be consistent with the requirements specified in the American Psychological Association (APA) format and style guide.
For this assignment, you should choose one dataset from the list/links below. You should then analyze the dataset you chose using Excel Analysis ToolPak or RStudio (for bonus points)
 
Six Datasets to select and use for analysis in this class :
 
Minnesota Healthcare Database.xlsx
 
Medicare National Data by County
 
MN Hospital Report Data by Care Unit FY2013
 
MN HCCIS Imaging Procedures 2013
 
MEPS Dental Files
 
MEPS Inpatient Stay Database
 
You should develop an analysis report, in five main sections, including (1) Introduction, (2) Analysis (including research questions/objective, data set used, research method, and analysis steps), (3) Results (tables, graphs, and discussion of results), (4) Conclusion and health policy recommendations. This is a 5-6 page individual project report.
 
Here are the main steps for this assignment.
 
Step 1: You submitted a topic you plan to use for this assignment in week 1. If the Professor has approved that topic for you to use then carry on.
 
Step 2: Develop the research question for that approved topic. Then, select the data set you could use to answer the research question, plan the research method you would use, the tables and graphs you would create using the data you have analyzed, and the analysis steps you would take. Refer to the instructions on the Report Structure below.
 
Step 3:  Run the analysis using Microsoft EXCEL Analysis ToolPak (or RStudio if that is the software you chose in Week 1) and report the findings based on the instructions below.
The Report Structure:
Start with the

  1. Cover page (1 page, including running head).

Please look at the example http://www.apastyle.org/manual/related/sample-experiment-paper-1.pdf (you can download the file from the class) and http://www.umgc.edu/library/libhow/apa_tutorial.cfm to learn more about the APA style.
Your title page should include:
Title, this is the approved topic by your instructor.
Student name
Class name
Instructor name
Date

  1. Introduction

Introduce the problem or topic being investigated. Include relevant background information, for example;
Indicates why this is an issue or topic worth researching;
Highlight how others have researched this topic or issue (whether quantitatively or qualitatively), and
Specify how others have operationalized this concept and measured these phenomena
Note: Introduction should not be more than one or two paragraphs. Assignment #1: Quantitative Analysis .
Literature Review
There is no need for a literature review in this assignment

  1. Research Question or Research Hypothesis

What is the Research Question or Research Hypothesis?
***Just in time information: Here are a few points for Research Question or Research Hypothesis
There are basically two kinds of research questions: testable and non-testable. Neither is better than the other, and both have a place in applied research. Assignment #1: Quantitative Analysis .
Examples of non-testable questions are:
How do managers feel about the reorganization?
What do residents feel are the most important problems facing the community?
Respondents’ answers to these questions could be summarized in descriptive tables and the results might be extremely valuable to administrators and planners. Business and social science researchers often ask non-testable research questions. The shortcoming with these types of questions is that they do not provide objective cut-off points for decision-makers.
In order to overcome this problem, researchers often seek to answer one or more testable research questions. Nearly all testable research questions begin with one of the following two phrases:
Is there a significant difference between …?
Is there a significant relationship between …?
For example:
 
Is there a significant relationship between the age of managers? and their attitudes towards the reorganization?
 
A research hypothesis is a testable statement of opinion. It is created from the research question by replacing the words “Is there” with the words “There is,” and also replacing the question mark with a period. Assignment #1: Quantitative Analysis .The hypotheses for the two sample research questions would be:
 
There is a significant relationship between the age of managers and their attitudes towards the reorganization.
 
It is not possible to test a hypothesis directly. Instead, you must turn the hypothesis into a null hypothesis. The null hypothesis is created from the hypothesis by adding the words “no” or “not” to the statement. For example, the null hypotheses for the two examples would be:
There is no significant relationship between the age of managers
and their attitudes towards the reorganization.
There is no significant difference between white and minority residents
with respect to what they feel are the most important problems facing the community.
All statistical testing is done on the null hypothesis…never the hypothesis. The result of a statistical test will enable you to either:
1) reject the null hypothesis, or
2) fail to reject the null hypothesis. Never use the words “accept the null hypothesis.”
*Source: StatPac for Windows Tutorial. (2017). User’s Guide; Formulating Hypotheses from Research Questions. Retrieved May 17, 2019 from https://statpac.com/manual/index.htm?turl=formulatinghypothesesfromresearchquestions.htm
What does significance really mean?
“Significance is a statistical term that tells how sure you are that a difference or relationship exists.  To say that a significant difference or relationship exists only tells half the story.  We might be very sure that a relationship exists, but is it a strong, moderate, or weak relationship?  Assignment #1: Quantitative Analysis .After finding a significant relationship, it is important to evaluate its strength.  Significant relationships can be strong or weak.  Significant differences can be large or small.  It just depends on your sample size.
To determine whether the observed difference is statistically significant, we look at two outputs of our statistical test:
P-value: The primary output of statistical tests is the p-value (probability value). It indicates the probability of observing the difference if no difference exists.
Example of Welch Two Sample T-test from Exercise 1
The p-value from above example, 0.9926, indicates that we DO NOT expect to see a meaningless (random) difference of 5% or more in ‘hospital beds’ only about 993 times in 1000 there is no difference (0.9926*1000=992.6 ~ 993).
Note: This is an example from the week1 exercise.
An example from Exercise 1
The p-value from above example, 0.0001, indicates that we’d expect to see a meaningless (random) ‘number of the employees on payer’ difference of 5% or more only about 0.1 times in 1000 (0.0001 * 1000=0.1).
CI around Difference: A confidence interval around a difference that does not cross zero also indicates statistical significance. The graph below shows the 95% confidence interval around the difference between hospital beds in 2011 and 2012 (CI: [-40.82 ; 40.44]):
Confidence Interval Example
CI around Difference: A confidence interval around a difference that does not cross zero also indicates statistical significance. The graph below shows the 95% confidence interval around the difference between hospital beds in 2011 and 2012 (CI: [-382.16 ; 125.53]):Confidence Interval Example
The boundaries of this confidence interval around the difference also provide a way to see what the upper [40.44] and lower bounds [-40.82].
As a summary:
“Statistically significant means a result is unlikely due to chance.
The p-value is the probability of obtaining the difference we saw from a sample (or a larger one) if there really isn’t a difference for all users.
Statistical significance doesn’t mean practical significance. Only by considering context can we determine whether a difference is practically significant; that is, whether it requires action.
The confidence interval around the difference also indicates statistical significance if the interval does not cross zero. It also provides likely boundaries for any improvement to aide in determining if a difference really is noteworthy.
With large sample sizes, you’re virtually certain to see statistically significant results, in such situations, it’s important to interpret the size of the difference”(“Measuring U”, 2019).
*Resource
Measuring U. (2019). Statistically significant. Retrieved May 17, 2019 from: https://measuringu.com/statistically-significant/
Small sample sizes often do not yield statistical significance; when they do, the differences themselves tend also to be practically significant; that is, meaningful enough to warrant action. Assignment #1: Quantitative Analysis .

  1. Research Method

Discuss the Research Methodology (in general). Describe the variable or variables that are being analyzed. Identify the statistical test you will select to analyze these data and explain why you chose this test.  Summarize your statistical alternative hypothesis. This section includes the following sub-sections: 

  1. a) Describe the Dataset

Example:  The primary source of data will be HOSPITAL COMPARE MEDICARE DATA (citation). This dataset provides information on hospital characteristics, such as: Number of staffed beds, ownership, system membership, staffing by nurses and non-clinical staff, teaching status, percentage of discharge for Medicare and Medicaid patients, and information regarding the availability of specialty and high-tech services, as well as Electronic Medical Record (EMR) use (Describe dataset in 2-3 lines, Google the dataset and find the related website to find more information about the data).
Also, describe the sample size; for example, “The writer is using Medicare data-2013, this data includes 3000 obs. for all of the hospitals in the US.”

  1. b) Describe Variables

Next, review the database you selected and select a variable or variables that are a “best-fit.”  That is, choose a variable that quantitatively measures the concept or concepts articulated in your research question or hypothesis.
Return to your previously stated Research Question or Hypothesis and evaluate it considering the variables you have selected. (See the sample Table 1).
Table 1. List of variables used for the analysis
Table 1. List of variables used for the analysis

Variable Definition Description of data code Source Year
Total Hospital Beds Total facility beds set up and staffed at the end of the reporting period Numeric MN Data 2013
….        
…..        
 

 
Source: UMGC, 2019
 
***Just in time information:
 
To cite a dataset, you can go with two approaches:
First, look at the note in the dataset for example;
Medicare National Data by County. (2012). Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care
Second, use the online citation, for example:
Zare, H., (2019, May). MN Hospital Report Data. Data posted in University of Maryland University College HMGT 400 online classroom, archived at http://campus.umgc.edu
See two examples describing the variables from Minnesota Data:
Table 2. Definition of variables used in the analysis

Variable Definition Description
of code
Source Year
hospital_beds Total facility beds set up and staffed at the end of the reporting period Numeric MN data 2013
year FY Categorical MN data 2013

Source: UMGC, 2019

  1. c) Describe the Research Method for Analysis

 
First, describe the research method as general (e.g., this is a quantitative method and then explain this method in about one paragraph. If you have this part in the introduction, you do not need to add it here).Assignment #1: Quantitative Analysis .
Then, explain the statistical method you plan to use for your analysis (Refer to content in week 3 on Biostatistics for information on various statistical methods you can choose from).
Example:
Hypothesis:  AZ hospitals are more likely to have lower readmission rates for PN compared to CA.
Research Method:  To determine whether Arizona hospitals are more likely to have lower readmission rate than California, we will use a t-test, to determine whether differences across hospital types are statistically significant (You can change the test depends on your analysis).

  1. d) Describe statistical package 

Add one paragraph for the statistical package, e.g., Excel or RStudio.

  1. Results

Discuss your findings considering the following tips:
▪ Why you needed to see the distribution of data before any analysis (e.g., check for outliers, finding the best fit-test; for example, if the data had not a normal distribution, you can’t use the parametric test, etc., so just add 1 or 2 sentences). Assignment #1: Quantitative Analysis .
▪ Did you eliminate outliers? (Please write 1 or 2 sentences, if applicable).
▪ How many observations do you have in your database and how many for selected variables, report % of missing.

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▪ When you are finished with this, go for the next steps:
Present the results of your statistical analysis; include any relevant statistical information (summary tables, including N, mean, std. dev.). Make sure to completely and correctly name all your columns and rows, tables, and variables. For this part you could have at least 1-2 tables and 1-2 figures (depending on your variables bar-chart, pi-chart, or scatter-plot), you can use a table like this:
Table 3. Descriptive analysis to compare % of BL in Medicare beneficiary, MD vs. VA- 2013

Variable Obs. Mean SD P-value
Per of Lipid in MD 24 83.20 2.32 0.4064
Per of Lipid in VA     124 82.69 4.41

Source: UMGC, 2019
 
When you have tables and plots ready, think about your finding and state the statistical conclusion.  That is, do the results present evidence in favor or the null hypothesis or evidence that contradicts the null hypothesis? Assignment #1: Quantitative Analysis .
 

  1. Conclusion and Discussion

 
Review your research questions or hypothesis.
How has your analysis informed this question or hypothesis?  Present your conclusion(s) from the results (presented above) and discuss the meaning of this conclusion(s) considering the research question or hypothesis presented in your introduction.
At the end of this section, add one or two sentences and discuss the limitations (including biases) associated with this analysis and any other statements you think are important in understanding the results of this analysis.
References
 
Include a reference page listing the bibliographic information for all sources cited in this report. This information should be consistent with the requirements specified in the American Psychological Association (APA) format and style guide. Assignment #1: Quantitative Analysis.

 
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Law Assignment Question

Law Assignment Question
Instruction: This writing assignment has 3 questions.  Please answer all as completely as possible. With the exception of one area, you should not have to do any outside research — but if you do, please cite your source in some way.
Also pay attention to formatting.  This counts for a significant chunk of your grade, so please use your best efforts.  There is no page requirement, but you should answer each question as completely as possible.Law Assignment Question.

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Question 1
 
This question will require you to draft part of a contract.  The contract in question is between you and your friend, John Smith.  John needs $500 to pay some bills, and you are happy to loan it to him.  However, you are a little worried that John might not pay it back.  You want to be clear, in writing, that this is not a gift — that there is consideration.  You also want to make sure whatever terms you write up aren’t illusory.  In this case, that means you want any terms you write up to clearly obligate John to pay you back; you don’t want him coming back to you in 5 years saying that paying you back was only optional.Law Assignment Question.
 
Before you write up your contract, think about the following issues:
 

  1. Name of offeror
  2. Name of offeree
  3. Consideration provided by offeror
  4. Consideration provided by offeree
  5. What terms do you want the repayment agreement to include? In other words, are there any time limits, interest payments, fees, etc., that you want to impose to make sure John pays you back, and that will cause him to be in breach if he doesn’t fulfill those terms?

 
Please note that you should not submit your answers to A through E — these are simply the things I want you to think about before actually drafting the agreement ….
 
Now that you have thought through the terms of the offer, you need to draft the agreement in a more formal manner.  You write the following letter to John.  Please fill in the blanks [ ] as appropriate.  Make sure that whatever terms you pick are clear to me, and that they are not too vague or arbitrary to be enforce by a court of law.
 
Also note that you must draft a forum selection clause, so that any dispute is resolved in RI courts.
 
This answer must be double spaced, times new Roman, 1-inch margins.
 
 

  • Discussed in A through E above well develop, answer the forum selection clause, and remember formatting.  

 
[your name]
Johnson & Wales University
Providence, RI 02903
 
April 1, 2021
 
John Smith
Johnson & Wales University
Providence, RI 02903
 
           Re: Letter of Intent, Loan Agreement
 
Dear John:
 
Below is my initial offer for a contract, regarding your request to borrow $500 from me.
 
I hope to hear from you soon.
 
Best regards,
 
 
 
[/s/ your name]
Enclosure
 
 
 
Loan Agreement (draft)
 
Law Assignment Question

 
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United Nations of the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Paper

United Nations of the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Paper
As outlined in the course lesson, the United Nations (UN) has played an active role in protecting and serving the global community in a variety of areas that include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development, and upholding international laws. In this discussion, you will consider the role of humanitarian aid.
The UN is well-known for providing humanitarian aid such as food, water, medical supplies, personnel, resources, and necessities after disasters, such as terrorist attacks, that occur in war-torn areas of the globe.United Nations of the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Paper.  Do you believe that the humanitarian aid provided by the UN is enough? Do you believe that other NATO nations should be required to provide humanitarian aid after a terrorist attack? Why, or why not?

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ANSWER THE ABOVE QUESTION AND THEN REPLY TO MY CLASSMATE’S RESPONSE TO THE ABOVE QUESTION AND EXPLAIN WHY YOU AGREE? (A MINIMUM OF 150 WORDS EACH)

                                            CLASSMATE’S POST
While pondering on the question regarding whether the UN provides enough humanitarian aid, made me realize the only thing I know about the UN is what everyone else knows. It provides global humanitarian aid such as food, housing, water, medical, and financial assistance to protect lives, relieve, and lessen distress while preserving and respecting the dignity of others especially, during man-made and naturals (GHA, n.d).  After researching information about the UN, my appreciation and understanding has changed because of its complexities.  According to the United Nations of the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) (n.d.) and the Global Humanitarian Assistance Organization (GHA) (n.d) this is not all .
The United Nations (UN) Secretariat entity is known for bringing all parties together for providing rational and comprehensible humanitarian aid response to countries in an emergency is known as the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). Seybolt (2009) stated how simple this process appears as well as complicated and difficult.  The UN system of providing aid should be perceived as a coordinating, directing, ensuring aide in routed to its proper destination.  United Nations of the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Paper. Global leaders participating in the UN’s mission all understand what they are to do to promote this task.  Financial assistance by all UN members maintains a steady flow for monetary needs, however, other needs such as individual, medical, teaching, and training to survive in today’s society and environmental situations are important.  A discovery I made during my research, is that the UN accepts denotations from any and every entity who wishes to denote to their cause.  The perception is that all monies and aid is allocated to the central fund and system, however, this is not the case.  Because these country leaders while supporting the greater good, also understand they have other responsibilities and duties to their government and political realm (Herbert, 2015).  This facet allows them and other donors to designate their funding and aid to specific entities and locations without questions (Burnett & Walker, 2015).  This causes distrust and lack of anonymity among the varying governments and donors which supports the greater good or bad. The vast majority of these contributions are not trackable.  This situation causes the speculation that the UN is not doing their job and could do more.  The question is not are they doing enough, but for continual growth and development in the good and bad on-goings in our world what else can be done by NATO and UN members to ensure their mission continues.

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Reference:
Burnett, M. & Walker, P. (2015). 94 Foreign Aff. 130. Regime Change for
Humanitarian Aid. How to Make Relief More Accountable.
heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals
Global Humanitarian Assistance Organization (GHA), (n.d). Global Humanitarian
globalhumanitarianassistance.org/data-guides/defining-humanitarian-aid
Herbert, S. (2015). Influencing laws and guidelines on humanitarian
assistance (GSDRC Helpdesk Research Report 1236). Birmingham, UK:
GSDRC, University of Birmingham
Seybolt, T. (2009). Harmonizing the Humanitarian Aid Network: Adaptive Change
in a Complex System, International Studies Quarterly, Volume 53, Issue 4,
December 2009, Pages 1027–1050, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-
2478.2009.00567.x
United Nations of the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
(OCHA) (n.d.) https://www.unocha.org/about-ocha/history-ocha
United Nations of the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Paper
 

 
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M10 Discussion Forum: Diabetes Type 2 Residing on Texas

M10 Discussion Forum: Diabetes Type 2 Residing on Texas
Topic: Diabetes Type 2 Residing on Texas
Marketing your health program is essential to ensuring participants actually engage in your intervention or change a health behavior. For this discussion board assignment, you will need to find a marketing strategy or advertisement that has been used to either recruit participants to a program or inform others about a similar health behavior your program will target. For instance, if your program is designed to encourage smoking cessation, then you will need to find marketing tools used by other smoking cessation programs or smoking cessation educational material. Once you find the marketing strategies, please describe the following aspects addressed in the textbook readings:

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How was segmentation used within the strategy? What adopter category (i.e. innovators, early adopters, etc.) do you think the strategy was created for and why do you believe this to be the case?   Did the strategy utilize the 4 P’s of marketing? How would you describe the routes of promotion used by the strategy? M10 Discussion Forum: Diabetes Type 2 Residing on Texas.

 

 
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Topic: Diabetes Type 2 Residing on Texas

Topic: Diabetes Type 2 Residing on Texas
Marketing your health program is essential to ensuring participants actually engage in your intervention or change a health behavior. For this discussion board assignment, you will need to find a marketing strategy or advertisement that has been used to either recruit participants to a program or inform others about a similar health behavior your program will target. For instance, if your program is designed to encourage smoking cessation, then you will need to find marketing tools used by other smoking cessation programs or smoking cessation educational material. Once you find the marketing strategies, please describe the following aspects addressed in the textbook readings: Topic: Diabetes Type 2 Residing on Texas

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How was segmentation used within the strategy? What adopter category (i.e. innovators, early adopters, etc.) do you think the strategy was created for and why do you believe this to be the case?   Did the strategy utilize the 4 P’s of marketing? How would you describe the routes of promotion used by the strategy?

Marketing your health program is essential to ensuring participants actually engage in your intervention or change a health behavior. For this discussion board assignment, you will need to find a marketing strategy or advertisement that has been used to either recruit participants to a program or inform others about a similar health behavior your program will target. For instance, if your program is designed to encourage smoking cessation, then you will need to find marketing tools used by other smoking cessation programs or smoking cessation educational material. Once you find the marketing strategies, please describe the following aspects addressed in the textbook readings:

How was segmentation used within the strategy? What adopter category (i.e. innovators, early adopters, etc.) do you think the strategy was created for and why do you believe this to be the case?   Did the strategy utilize the 4 P’s of marketing? How would you describe the routes of promotion used by the strategy?

Topic: Diabetes Type 2 Residing on Texas
 

 
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Pittsburgh Synagogue Shooting Paper

Pittsburgh Synagogue Shooting Paper

Utilizing the topic (Pittsburgh Synagogue Shooting), write your final research paper.
1) Discuss the recruitment and radicalization process of lone wolf terrorists in the domestic United States and abroad using the Internet and social media platforms.
2) Explain why terrorists focus on soft targets.
3) Analyze the sociological and psychological impacts that these attacks have had on society. Pittsburgh Synagogue Shooting Paper.

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4) Include three to five recent topics of domestic or global lone wolf terrorist attacks that have occurred. Provide a full synopsis on these incidents to include the sequence of events and the resiliency and reactionary methods used to respond to the incidents. What lessons were learned after each of these events?
5) Offer strategies that can be used to further strengthen the Internet and social media platforms from being used to recruit members, promote propaganda, and radicalize terrorists.
Your final research paper must be a minimum of four pages in length, not counting the title and reference pages. You are required to use a minimum of four Peer Review Scholar sources. All sources used, including the textbook, must be cited and referenced according to APA standards. Pittsburgh Synagogue Shooting Paper.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
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PUB 405 Case Study – Research Paper

PUB 405 Case Study – Research Paper
PUB 405 Case Study – Research Paper (Graham v. Connor)
The subject of the paper will either be on an administrative case or an aspect of the administrative law process.  The student will research and prepare a paper reporting and analyzing an administrative law case either on an aspect of the process or result.  In your analysis, be sure to discuss some of the material addressed in this course. The paper should be well thought-out and well written. Your paper should also have the following sections: PUB 405 Case Study – Research Paper

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  •  Introduction/Background
  • Analysis of the Issue
  • Alternative Points of Views (Pros and cons)
  • Your Own Point of View
  • Conclusion

All papers submitted will be typewritten, doubled-spaced, 6-8 pages (excluding title page, table of contents and bibliography). The font should be 12 point and the type style Times Roman, Courier or equivalent. Full and proper citation is expected. Citations in the text of your paper must reference a complete list of works cited at the end of the paper. The paper should be written using the APA style manual. Wikipedia, blogs etc. are not considered as academic sources…please use scholarly (journal) articles to help in writing this paperAlso, please note that excessive citation although referenced is still considered plagiarism. This paper should reflect undergraduate level work in content, appearance, organization, grammar, and effort. Use the grading rubric in your syllabus as a guide! Students are required to submit the document in MS Word.
Please note that ALL papers will be submitted to Turnitin for a check against plagiarism. PUB 405 Case Study – Research Paper

 
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Purpose of Writing a Research Paper

Purpose of Writing a Research Paper
Purpose
Focus on a problem or issue, make a logical argument and assert a position. You do not simply want to describe a topic, but critically give thoughts and opinions about it. Clearly state your paper’s thesis—the main idea put forth. While drawing on ideas and theories from others in the field who have written about the topic, the purpose should revolve around giving new perspective.
 
Features
The introduction must alert the reader to the topic. Your thesis should describe an idea, pose a question or outline key issues. In the body of the paper, provide an overview of your key arguments. The conclusion should bring it all together. The goal is not to repeat the introduction. The paper should creatively summarize the thesis and present the reader with a response, or point to gaps in the literature. Purpose of Writing a Research Paper.
Things to Consider
Use Mla format. In order to avoid accusations of plagiarism, you must cite external sources. Finally, always place the works cited or bibliography list for references at the end of the paper.
Misconceptions
Do not write a research paper as a collection of your opinions. For example, a paper about how much you love television is a personal essay rather than a research paper. Instead, after researching the literature on television, you could write a paper on its social impact. A research paper starts with extensive reading, not a casual browsing of literature. If you do not read, you will not know your topic.

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Research Project Assignment Topics
Ulysses Brian Mack
Lone Star College
Instructions: Choose one of the following topics and write a research paper. The paper is to be 8-10 pages in length and submitted in MLA format. Reference pages do not count towards the final page count. NO LATE ASSIGNMENTS WILL BE ACCEPTED.

  1. Hate speech

What is considered hate speech and should it be protected under the constitution?

  1. The Anti-Vaccination movement: What is their argument and is the movement damaging the health of others.
  2. Human Trafficking: What are the effects on society and those victimized by the industry? Purpose of Writing a Research Paper.
  3. Sexual Harassment

What constitutes sexual harassment and why does it seem to persist despite social progress.

  1. America as a police state.

******Consider the following ideas if choosing this topic******

  1. Should Law enforcement officials be required to have a college degree for employment just like other fields such as teaching, engineering, and business?
  2. Do policemen and women have too much authority?
  3. Should there be increased racial and gender based training for officers?
  4. Felons and voting
    Should convicted felons have the right to vote?
  5. 7. Should the U.S abolish the death penalty?
  6. Discuss the aspects of a certain type of Mental disorder and the stigma associated.
  7. Is social media destroying humanity.
  8. Population control: conspiracy theory or truth?

 

  1. 11. Visas and Immigration:
  2. Should persons who are in the U.S on a visa be allowed more rights to be allowed to function like those who are citizens?
  3. Why is it that America counts on immigrant and illegal immigrant labor, but has not created a permanent solution for those individuals?
  4. 12. What is the Prison industrial complex and how does it affect America positively and negatively. Purpose of Writing a Research Paper.
 
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GS 103 Intro to Physical Science

GS 103 Intro to Physical Science
Time and Space
Each week, you will be asked to respond to the prompt or prompts in the discussion forum. Your initial post should be 75-150 words in length, and is due on Sunday. By Tuesday, you should respond to two additional posts from your peers. If you have not done so lately, please review the Rules of Discussion.
Please respond to BOTH of the following discussion topics.
Question A
Why do we have daylight savings time?  Do you feel we should continue to change our times? Explain the pros and cons.
Question B
In the United States, what are the continuing goals of space exploration, and in what ways do these programs still function? Is continued space exploration still a worthy investment of U.S. resources? Why or why not? Should we reinvest in manned space exploration or make cuts to NASA’s budget?GS 103 Intro to Physical Science

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Time and Space
Each week, you will be asked to respond to the prompt or prompts in the discussion forum. Your initial post should be 75-150 words in length, and is due on Sunday. By Tuesday, you should respond to two additional posts from your peers. If you have not done so lately, please review the Rules of Discussion.
Please respond to BOTH of the following discussion topics.
Question A
Why do we have daylight savings time?  Do you feel we should continue to change our times? Explain the pros and cons.
Question B
In the United States, what are the continuing goals of space exploration, and in what ways do these programs still function? Is continued space exploration still a worthy investment of U.S. resources? Why or why not? Should we reinvest in manned space exploration or make cuts to NASA’s budget? GS 103 Intro to Physical Science
 

 
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