Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus Essay

Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus Essay
Discussion: Diabetes According to the American Diabetes Association (2011), 25.8 million children and adults have been diagnosed with diabetes in the United States. Approximately 2 million more are diagnosed every year, with another 79 million people considered to be in a pre-diabetes state. These millions of people are at risk of several alterations, including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, neuropathy, and blindness. Since diabetes has a major impact on the health of millions of people around the world, it is essential for nurses to understand the pathophysiology and associated alterations of this disorder. In this Discussion, you compare two types of diabetes—diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. To Prepare

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  • Review Chapter 19 in the Huether and McCance text and Chapter 18 in the Hammer and McPhee text. Identify the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. Consider the similarities and differences between resulting alterations of hormonal regulation.
  • Select two of the following patient factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Think about how the factors you selected might impact the diagnosis and prescription of treatment for these two types of diabetes. Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus

By Day 3 Post an explanation of the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. Describe the differences and similarities between resulting alterations of hormonal regulation. Then explain how the factors you selected might impact the diagnosis and prescription of treatment for these two types of diabetes. Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit! Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses. By Day 6 Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected different factors than you, in one or more of the following ways:

  • Share insights on how the factor you selected impacts the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus.
  • Offer alternative diagnoses and prescription of treatment options for diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus.

Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research
Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus Essay
 

 
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Categories of Antimicrobial Agents Essay

Categories of Antimicrobial Agents Essay
Antimicrobial agents are essential components in the treatment of various bacterial infections as they help to kill or prevent the growth of microbes such as bacteria, fungi, and protozoans. Prior to the discovery of antimicrobial agents, treatment options for patients with bacterial infections were limited. For many patients, treatment often resulted in the amputation of limbs or even death. Today, treatment options for bacterial infections typically have a more positive prognosis. Due to the various types of infections presented in patients, it is essential to be able to identify the underlying cause of the infection—whether bacterial or viral—before recommending drug treatments. This will help you identify whether or not an antimicrobial agent would be appropriate, and which specific agent would target the infection. In this Assignment, you consider the appropriate use of antimicrobial agents for infections. Write a 2- to 3- page paper that addresses the following: • Describe the categories of antimicrobial agents. • Describe differences between viral and bacterial infections. • Explain why proper identification of viral and bacterial infections is key to selecting the proper antimicrobial agent.

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Antimicrobial agents are essential components in the treatment of various bacterial infections as they help to kill or prevent the growth of microbes such as bacteria, fungi, and protozoans. Prior to the discovery of antimicrobial agents, treatment options for patients with bacterial infections were limited. For many patients, treatment often resulted in the amputation of limbs or even death. Today, treatment options for bacterial infections typically have a more positive prognosis. Due to the various types of infections presented in patients, it is essential to be able to identify the underlying cause of the infection—whether bacterial or viral—before recommending drug treatments. This will help you identify whether or not an antimicrobial agent would be appropriate, and which specific agent would target the infection. In this Assignment, you consider the appropriate use of antimicrobial agents for infections. Write a 2- to 3- page paper that addresses the following: • Describe the categories of antimicrobial agents. • Describe differences between viral and bacterial infections. • Explain why proper identification of viral and bacterial infections is key to selecting the proper antimicrobial agent. Categories of Antimicrobial Agents Essay

 
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Describe the function of the liver

Describe the function of the liver
Responses to classmates must consist of at least 271 words (not including the greeting and the references), do NOT repeat the same thing your classmate is saying, try to add something of value like a resource, educational information to give to patients, possible bad outcomes associated with the medicines discussed in the case, try to include a sample case you’ve seen at work and discuss how you feel about how that case was handled. Try to use supportive information such as current Tx guidelines, current research related to the treatment, anything that will enhance learning in the online classroom. Educating a combined class of 6th and 7th graders about the anatomy and physiology of cirrhosis. Class Objectives 1.Describe the function of the liver 2.Understanding cirrhosis 3.Applications of risk factors What is the Liver? The liver is the largest solid organ in your body. It will be about the size of a football when you are grown. The liver has so many functions, but I will just describe the top three. The liver filters and cleans blood. After you eat the good nutrients from the food pass from the intestines to the blood. That blood then goes through the liver. The liver can process the good things out of the blood that the body needs. It then sends the stuff the body doesn’t need with bile to the intestines where you poop it out or sends it to the kidneys where you pee it out (Cirrhosis, n.d). The liver makes bile. When you eat the digestive system takes everything your body needs from the food. One of the things your body gets from food is fat. Bile is a juice produced by the liver that helps digest the fats (Cirrhosis, n.d.).

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The liver stores glycogen. The liver helps the body use carbs which are found in foods like breads, milk, and fruits. The body breaks down carbs into sugar called glucose. Glucose is the main source of fuel for our cells, and when it is stored in the liver it is called glycogen. The liver releases glycogen into the blood when we need a quick burst of energy or if blood sugars are too low (Cirrhosis, n.d.). Describe the function of the liver Understanding Cirrhosis Cirrhosis is a disease where the liver becomes injured or scarred. When the liver is scarred and damaged it does not function well, and the functions of the liver are essential to life. If the liver is not functioning you can experience yellowing of the skin and eyes (called jaundice) throwing up blood, pooping blood (result of what is called portal hypertension), being tired a lot, fluid buildup in the belly or arms and legs (called ascites), and can lose your desire to eat (McCance, Huether, Brashers, & Rote, 2014). Risk factors In adults the most common risk factors leading to cirrhosis are alcohol use and hepatitis C which is a virus that can be spread by sharing needles or other equipment used to inject drugs (CDC,n.d.). Figures 1 and 2 Liver Image from Up To Date, 2019. Video Link https://youtu.be/BWqas5R5M6A The reason I decided on this video is because of the group I am trying to reach. There were several videos that contained so much information and very boring monotone dialogue. I knew that this needed to be short and to the point to maintain attention. I also liked that it was full of color and animated, reaching to the 6th and 7th grade students that my aim is for. The video discusses just cirrhosis, the only thing I would change would do a small bit about the function of the liver before what cirrhosis is. It discusses portal hypertension, ascites, jaundice, and hepatic encephalopathy. References Cirrhosis. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/liver-disease/cirrhosis Cirrhosis (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/cirrhosis-beyond-the-basics#H2 Hepatitis C Questions and Answers for the Public | CDC. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hcv/cfaq.htm McCance, K.L., Huether, S.E., Brashers, V.L. & Rote, N.S. (2014).Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (7th ed.).St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier Describe the function of the liver
 

 
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The Thyroid Gland Assignment Discussion

The Thyroid Gland Assignment Discussion
Responses to classmates must consist of at least 350 words (not including the greeting and the references), do NOT repeat the same thing your classmate is saying, try to add something of value like a resource, educational information to give to patients, possible bad outcomes associated with the medicines discussed in the case, try to include a sample case you’ve seen at work and discuss how you feel about how that case was handled. Try to use supportive information such as current Tx guidelines, current research related to the treatment, anything that will enhance learning in the online classroom. Feedback loop for the thyroid gland. Discussion post by Chad Spencer, Pictures and questions by Jessica Applet. Within the human body the thyroid hormones are regulated by a negative feedback loop. This feedback loop is responsible for maintaining tight control over the thyroid hormones and their narrow range of serum concentrations (Ortiga-Carvalho, Sidhaye, & Wondisford, 2014). This negative feedback loop involves the thyroid gland, hypothalamus, and the anterior pituitary gland (McCance, Huether, Brashers, & Rote, 2019). When the body senses low levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4) the feedback loop gets initiated. The first step in this loop is the release of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) (McCance et al., 2019). The Thyroid Gland Assignment Discussion

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TRH is stored and synthesized within the hypothalamus (McCance et al., 2019). The TRH levels within the body are increased by things such as stress, exposure to the cold, and decreased levels of T4 (McCance et al., 2019). TRH gets released into the hypothalamic-pituitary portal system, where it circulates and reaches the anterior pituitary gland (McCance et al., 2019). The anterior pituitary gland gets stimulated and causes the release of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (McCance et al., 2019). TSH then stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone (TH) (McCance et al., 2019). As the TH levels rise it creates a negative feedback that stops the release of TRH and TSH which then results in decreased TH production and secretion (McCance et al., 2019). Questions A decrease in what leads to the initiation of the feedback loop for the thyroid gland? Where is thyrotropin-releasing hormone synthesized and release from? References McCance, K.L., Huether, S.E., Brashers, V.L., & Rote, N.S. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier. Ortiga-Carvalho, T. M., Sidhaye, A. R., & Wondisford, F. E. (2014). Thyroid hormone receptors and resistance to thyroid hormone disorders. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 10(10), 582–591. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrendo.2014.143 What You Should Know About the Thyroid Feedback Loop. (2017). Picture retrieved from https://thyroidadvisor.com/know-thyroid-feedback-loop/
The Thyroid Gland Assignment Discussion
 

 
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Function or Dysfunction of Cells of Pancreas

Function or Dysfunction of Cells of Pancreas
Responses to classmates must consist of at least 350 words (not including the greeting and the references), do NOT repeat the same thing your classmate is saying, try to add something of value like a resource, educational information to give to patients, possible bad outcomes associated with the medicines discussed in the case, try to include a sample case you’ve seen at work and discuss how you feel about how that case was handled. Try to use supportive information such as current Tx guidelines, current research related to the treatment, anything that will enhance learning in the online classroom. Feedback loop for regulation of glucose and insulin: (Cesar) Feedback loops can be defined as a process in which certain changes in the system will trigger a certain result. Such change may either increase or decrease the changes in the system so it can go back to normal in order to maintain homeostasis (Bharath & Hanspeter, 2014). Feedback may be either positive feedback or negative feedback. Positive feedback occurs when the output of a system amplifies such system; negative feedback, by the other hand, causes the inhibition of the system as a response to the system’s output. The control of glucose by insulin is an example of negative feedback since the detection of high levels of glucose trigger the secretion of insulin in order to lower such levels (Bharath & Hanspeter, 2014).

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Glucose is one of the principal sources of energy for the human; it is obtained from the food. Glucose is absorbed by the small intestine into the blood and from there travels to the liver where will be transformed for metabolic purposes (Pia, Bingbing, Yixian & Weiping, 2016). The levels of glucose in blood vary according of the individual intake and the process that occur during and after digestion. First the body is in an absorptive state in which the levels of glucose will raise product of the recent intake. Such levels will fall after digestion is completed and the body enters into the post-absorptive state. The feedback loop of the for regulation of glucose and insulin starts in the absorptive state when the increase in the blood levels of glucose is detected by specialized cells in the pancreas, this alarm causes the increase the release of insulin into the blood(Rorsman & Aschcroft, 2017). Function or Dysfunction of Cells of Pancreas Insulin will stimulates cells, especially adipose and muscle cells, to take up glucose from the blood (Pia, Bingbing et al., 2016); this will help to reduce the existing levels of glucose in blood. When insulin binds to the cell’s insulin receptors, it triggers the increase number of glucose transporters. The more transporters are produced, the more glucose is transported into cells with a corresponding drop in blood glucose. Insulin has other effects on the cells, but all of them contribute to an increase in glucose usage and storage, thus a reduction in blood glucose (Rorsman & Aschcroft, 2017). QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION (Morrisa) 1- Does age play a role in function or dysfunction of the cells of the pancreas? 2- According to best practice by the American Diabetes Association, which Type 2 DM medication can: 1-decrease hepatic glucose production; 2-increase insulin sensitivity and resulting in; 3- increase the peripheral glucose uptake? Warm Regards, Cesar Almanza- Pathophysiology of the feedback loop Morrisa Gibson – Image with textbox, and questions. References Bharath, A. & Hanspeter, H. (2014). Positive feedback promotes oscillations in negative feedback loops. PLoS One, 9 (8), doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104761 Kahn, S. E., Cooper, M. E., & Del Prato, S. (2014). Image: Pathophysiology and treatment of type 2 diabetes: perspectives on the past, present, and future. The Lancet, 383(9922), 1068-1083. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(13)62154-6 Pia, V. R., Bingbing, W., Yixian, L. & Weiping, H. (2016). Pancreatic regulation of glucose homeostasis. Experimental & Molecular Medicine, 48 (3), doi: 10.1038/emm.2016.6 Rorsman, P. & Aschcroft, F. M. (2017). Pancreatic ß-Cell electrical activity and insulin secretion: Of mice and men. Physiological Reviews, 98 (1), doi: 10.1152/physrev.00008.2017 Function or Dysfunction of Cells of Pancreas
 

 
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Blood Types Assignment Discussion

Blood Types Assignment Discussion
Assignment Objectives: Identify and select appropriate interventions including diagnostic tests and nursing interventions. Analyze physiological and psychological responses to illness and treatment modalities Purpose: Examine case study related to hematologic disease and answer the assigned questions. This assignment should help refine your clinical/critical thinking skills. Assignment Description: Answer the questions in the grading criteria related to each of the patients provided. Blood Types Assignment Discussion

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Your answer must follow APA 6th edition format. Submit the answer to this assignment area. A 70 year old male patient describes symptoms he has noticed in the past 3 days: easily fatigued, severe shortness of breath, being so weak he sleeps all the time, and bright red blood in the toilet with bowel movements. Your assessment reveals cool skin, pale oral mucosa and conjunctivae, positive hemoccult test, and a Hgb of 5 g/dL. You diagnose him with a gastrointestinal bleed. He will require a blood transfusion. He has Blood Type B+. Identify the type of anemia he has. Describe which blood types he can receive safely and why these are compatible with his Type B+. Describe the blood types he cannot receive and why they are incompatible with Type B+. Explain the transfusion reactions he may experience if he receives incompatible blood products. Blood Types Assignment Discussion

 
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HIV/AIDS Infectious Disease Report

HIV/AIDS Infectious Disease Report
Use the disease you selected HIV/AIDS Infectious Disease Report Using the South University Online Library or the Internet, conduct an independent research on the selected disease. Based on your research and understanding, create a 3- to 4-page report in a Microsoft Word document, which include a public education and disease control plan for your identified disease. Your paper must address the following: What percentage of population was affected by the disease? Have there been instances of any historical outbreaks of the disease? How was the disease handled and controlled in your community? What were the objectives and goals of your public education plan to control this disease? What initiatives were taken by the government departments to mitigate the impact of the disease? What measures would you suggest in the plan to actually reduce health risks? How would the plan allow the public to recognize pathogens are related to the cause of diseases and other health problems? How would the plan suggest measures to prevent the outbreak of the chosen infectious disease? HIV/AIDS Infectious Disease Report

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Use the disease you selected HIV/AIDS Infectious Disease Report Using the South University Online Library or the Internet, conduct an independent research on the selected disease. Based on your research and understanding, create a 3- to 4-page report in a Microsoft Word document, which include a public education and disease control plan for your identified disease. Your paper must address the following: What percentage of population was affected by the disease? Have there been instances of any historical outbreaks of the disease? How was the disease handled and controlled in your community? What were the objectives and goals of your public education plan to control this disease? What initiatives were taken by the government departments to mitigate the impact of the disease? What measures would you suggest in the plan to actually reduce health risks? How would the plan allow the public to recognize pathogens are related to the cause of diseases and other health problems? How would the plan suggest measures to prevent the outbreak of the chosen infectious disease? HIV/AIDS Infectious Disease Report

 
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Role of the Kidney in Potassium Excretion

Role of the Kidney in Potassium Excretion
N.A. is brought to the ED for management of intentional drug overdose. He ingested 56 tables of Amoxicillin (prescribed 875 mg po BID for 28 days for a sinus infection) and 30 tablets of Seconal (prescribed 100 mg capsules po QHS prn for sleep). His respirations are slow and shallow, and he is non-responsive. He is admitted to the critical care unit to be closely monitored for the development of ventilatory failure and renal failure, which often accompany drug overdose of Amoxicillin (renal failure) and secondary (ventilatory failure). His urine output is decreased at about 20 mL/hr.Role of the Kidney in Potassium Excretion

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His laboratory values and serum K+ = 6.7 mEq/L; arterial blood gas: pH = 7.13, PaCO2 = 65 mm Hg; PaO2 = 88 mm Hg, and HCO3- = 16 mEq/L. Answer each question completely, and focus on pathophysiology. Remember to reference your answers properly. 1. What is the most likely cause of N.A.’s potassium imbalance? Explain the role of the kidney in potassium excretion. (2 points) 2. What is the relationship between acid-base balance and serum potassium level? (2 points) 3. What is the reason for N.A.’s low urine output? How should his fluids be managed? (2 points) 4. Categorize and explain the probable cause of N.A.’s acid-base disorder. (2 points) 5. Can N.A. compensate for his acid-base disorder? Why or why not? (2 points) 6. How should his acid-base imbalance be medically managed? What is your rationale for each interventions? (2 points) 7. List two nursing diagnoses and one spiritual nursing diagnoses for N.A. (3 points) 8. You must type your paper using APA format. Deductions will be made for spelling and grammatical errors. ( 5 points)   Role of the Kidney in Potassium Excretion

 
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Human Anatomy and Physiology Essay

Human Anatomy and Physiology Essay

  1. Identify and describe the gross and microscopic structural properties of various body systems and relate these to their respective functions.
  2. Demonstrate skills in data analysis, reporting, and information literacy in a scientific/clinical context  to evaluate the interrelationship of the structure and function of various organs.

Introduce the relationship between the cardiac system and exercise and the concept of anthropometry. You must make sure you reference this section.
Aims and objectives
State the aims and objectives of the experiment.
Using the protocol summarize the methods that were used to generate the model data. Be as concise as possible, but give sufficient detail
to allow someone to repeat the study. Your text should be in the form of a paragraph in the same way that methods are reported in
published scientific papers.
Present the BMI and VO2 max values in table form together with the other model data. Use a table similar to that in the protocol. The
table must be labeled and contain a title. Provide workings for all calculations and make sure measurements contain units. Remember to
clearly indicate which method you used to calculate VO2 max. Calculate the mean values for the group of 7 students and include these
Submission Deadline Marks and Feedback
20 working days after deadline (L4, 5 and 7)
15 working days after deadline (L6)
10 working days after deadline (block delivery)
Assignment number and title 001 Fitness Assessment and Anthropometry Human Anatomy and Physiology Essay
Assignment type Written report submitted electronically via BREO Weighting of assignment 25%
Identify and describe the gross and microscopic structural properties of various body systems and relate these to their respective functions.

  1. Demonstrate skills in data analysis, reporting, and information literacy in a scientific/clinical context to evaluate the interrelationship of the structure and function of various organs.

2 values in your table. Do not forget to describe “your” results and the group results in words and refer to your table in the main text.

Discussion

Discuss your results and, if any, the relationship between the anthropometric values and fitness status. To help you with this, you should carry out the tasks and consider the question listed below. Describe your findings to the tasks and your answers to your questions in this section.

  1. a) compare “your” values to the mean group values
  2. b) compare the rating related to your VO2 value with the health fitness status suggested by your BMI. Using this data is BMI a reliable estimation of your health status?
  3. c) does your arm span relate to your height? What about the rest of the group? From this data is there a relationship between arm span and height?

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  4. d) does your arm span relate to your fitness? What about the rest of the group? From this data is there a relationship between arm span and fitness?
  5. e) why do subjects have different heart rates and different VO2 when doing exactly the same amount of work?
  6. f) why would having a high maximal oxygen uptake be beneficial?
  7. g) what considerations might you have to make when predicting maximal oxygen uptake from heart rate in an elderly population?
  8. h) what do you think about the methods you have used to determine arm span, BMI and VO2 max. Do they have any limitations?

By reflecting on your results and comparisons, decide if arm span is a good predictor of height and fitness and if BMI and VO2 max are good predictors of health and fitness.Human Anatomy and Physiology Essay
A short list of at least 10 references in the correct UoB Harvard format should be included at the end of the report. What do I need to do to pass? (Threshold Expectations from UIF)

  • Produce a scientific report according to expectations described in the assignment brief.
  • Demonstrate understanding of relevant laboratory techniques in the practical and/or report.
  • Demonstrate understanding of the interrelationship between the relevant anatomical systems.

How do I produce high quality work that merits a good grade?

  • contain a title page giving the assessment title, unit code, assessment number, your student number and your final word count (excluding references)
  • be created electronically using Microsoft WORD.
  • contain an appropriately labelled table referred to in the main text
  • cite at least 10 references and no more than 20

How does this assignment relate to what we are doing in scheduled sessions? Human Anatomy and Physiology Essay

 
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