Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus Essay

Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus Essay
Discussion: Diabetes According to the American Diabetes Association (2011), 25.8 million children and adults have been diagnosed with diabetes in the United States. Approximately 2 million more are diagnosed every year, with another 79 million people considered to be in a pre-diabetes state. These millions of people are at risk of several alterations, including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, neuropathy, and blindness. Since diabetes has a major impact on the health of millions of people around the world, it is essential for nurses to understand the pathophysiology and associated alterations of this disorder. In this Discussion, you compare two types of diabetes—diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. To Prepare

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  • Review Chapter 19 in the Huether and McCance text and Chapter 18 in the Hammer and McPhee text. Identify the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. Consider the similarities and differences between resulting alterations of hormonal regulation.
  • Select two of the following patient factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Think about how the factors you selected might impact the diagnosis and prescription of treatment for these two types of diabetes. Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus

By Day 3 Post an explanation of the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. Describe the differences and similarities between resulting alterations of hormonal regulation. Then explain how the factors you selected might impact the diagnosis and prescription of treatment for these two types of diabetes. Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit! Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses. By Day 6 Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected different factors than you, in one or more of the following ways:

  • Share insights on how the factor you selected impacts the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus.
  • Offer alternative diagnoses and prescription of treatment options for diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus.

Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research
Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus Essay
 

 
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Categories of Antimicrobial Agents Essay

Categories of Antimicrobial Agents Essay
Antimicrobial agents are essential components in the treatment of various bacterial infections as they help to kill or prevent the growth of microbes such as bacteria, fungi, and protozoans. Prior to the discovery of antimicrobial agents, treatment options for patients with bacterial infections were limited. For many patients, treatment often resulted in the amputation of limbs or even death. Today, treatment options for bacterial infections typically have a more positive prognosis. Due to the various types of infections presented in patients, it is essential to be able to identify the underlying cause of the infection—whether bacterial or viral—before recommending drug treatments. This will help you identify whether or not an antimicrobial agent would be appropriate, and which specific agent would target the infection. In this Assignment, you consider the appropriate use of antimicrobial agents for infections. Write a 2- to 3- page paper that addresses the following: • Describe the categories of antimicrobial agents. • Describe differences between viral and bacterial infections. • Explain why proper identification of viral and bacterial infections is key to selecting the proper antimicrobial agent.

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Antimicrobial agents are essential components in the treatment of various bacterial infections as they help to kill or prevent the growth of microbes such as bacteria, fungi, and protozoans. Prior to the discovery of antimicrobial agents, treatment options for patients with bacterial infections were limited. For many patients, treatment often resulted in the amputation of limbs or even death. Today, treatment options for bacterial infections typically have a more positive prognosis. Due to the various types of infections presented in patients, it is essential to be able to identify the underlying cause of the infection—whether bacterial or viral—before recommending drug treatments. This will help you identify whether or not an antimicrobial agent would be appropriate, and which specific agent would target the infection. In this Assignment, you consider the appropriate use of antimicrobial agents for infections. Write a 2- to 3- page paper that addresses the following: • Describe the categories of antimicrobial agents. • Describe differences between viral and bacterial infections. • Explain why proper identification of viral and bacterial infections is key to selecting the proper antimicrobial agent. Categories of Antimicrobial Agents Essay

 
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Describe the function of the liver

Describe the function of the liver
Responses to classmates must consist of at least 271 words (not including the greeting and the references), do NOT repeat the same thing your classmate is saying, try to add something of value like a resource, educational information to give to patients, possible bad outcomes associated with the medicines discussed in the case, try to include a sample case you’ve seen at work and discuss how you feel about how that case was handled. Try to use supportive information such as current Tx guidelines, current research related to the treatment, anything that will enhance learning in the online classroom. Educating a combined class of 6th and 7th graders about the anatomy and physiology of cirrhosis. Class Objectives 1.Describe the function of the liver 2.Understanding cirrhosis 3.Applications of risk factors What is the Liver? The liver is the largest solid organ in your body. It will be about the size of a football when you are grown. The liver has so many functions, but I will just describe the top three. The liver filters and cleans blood. After you eat the good nutrients from the food pass from the intestines to the blood. That blood then goes through the liver. The liver can process the good things out of the blood that the body needs. It then sends the stuff the body doesn’t need with bile to the intestines where you poop it out or sends it to the kidneys where you pee it out (Cirrhosis, n.d). The liver makes bile. When you eat the digestive system takes everything your body needs from the food. One of the things your body gets from food is fat. Bile is a juice produced by the liver that helps digest the fats (Cirrhosis, n.d.).

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The liver stores glycogen. The liver helps the body use carbs which are found in foods like breads, milk, and fruits. The body breaks down carbs into sugar called glucose. Glucose is the main source of fuel for our cells, and when it is stored in the liver it is called glycogen. The liver releases glycogen into the blood when we need a quick burst of energy or if blood sugars are too low (Cirrhosis, n.d.). Describe the function of the liver Understanding Cirrhosis Cirrhosis is a disease where the liver becomes injured or scarred. When the liver is scarred and damaged it does not function well, and the functions of the liver are essential to life. If the liver is not functioning you can experience yellowing of the skin and eyes (called jaundice) throwing up blood, pooping blood (result of what is called portal hypertension), being tired a lot, fluid buildup in the belly or arms and legs (called ascites), and can lose your desire to eat (McCance, Huether, Brashers, & Rote, 2014). Risk factors In adults the most common risk factors leading to cirrhosis are alcohol use and hepatitis C which is a virus that can be spread by sharing needles or other equipment used to inject drugs (CDC,n.d.). Figures 1 and 2 Liver Image from Up To Date, 2019. Video Link https://youtu.be/BWqas5R5M6A The reason I decided on this video is because of the group I am trying to reach. There were several videos that contained so much information and very boring monotone dialogue. I knew that this needed to be short and to the point to maintain attention. I also liked that it was full of color and animated, reaching to the 6th and 7th grade students that my aim is for. The video discusses just cirrhosis, the only thing I would change would do a small bit about the function of the liver before what cirrhosis is. It discusses portal hypertension, ascites, jaundice, and hepatic encephalopathy. References Cirrhosis. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/liver-disease/cirrhosis Cirrhosis (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/cirrhosis-beyond-the-basics#H2 Hepatitis C Questions and Answers for the Public | CDC. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hcv/cfaq.htm McCance, K.L., Huether, S.E., Brashers, V.L. & Rote, N.S. (2014).Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (7th ed.).St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier Describe the function of the liver
 

 
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The Thyroid Gland Assignment Discussion

The Thyroid Gland Assignment Discussion
Responses to classmates must consist of at least 350 words (not including the greeting and the references), do NOT repeat the same thing your classmate is saying, try to add something of value like a resource, educational information to give to patients, possible bad outcomes associated with the medicines discussed in the case, try to include a sample case you’ve seen at work and discuss how you feel about how that case was handled. Try to use supportive information such as current Tx guidelines, current research related to the treatment, anything that will enhance learning in the online classroom. Feedback loop for the thyroid gland. Discussion post by Chad Spencer, Pictures and questions by Jessica Applet. Within the human body the thyroid hormones are regulated by a negative feedback loop. This feedback loop is responsible for maintaining tight control over the thyroid hormones and their narrow range of serum concentrations (Ortiga-Carvalho, Sidhaye, & Wondisford, 2014). This negative feedback loop involves the thyroid gland, hypothalamus, and the anterior pituitary gland (McCance, Huether, Brashers, & Rote, 2019). When the body senses low levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4) the feedback loop gets initiated. The first step in this loop is the release of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) (McCance et al., 2019). The Thyroid Gland Assignment Discussion

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TRH is stored and synthesized within the hypothalamus (McCance et al., 2019). The TRH levels within the body are increased by things such as stress, exposure to the cold, and decreased levels of T4 (McCance et al., 2019). TRH gets released into the hypothalamic-pituitary portal system, where it circulates and reaches the anterior pituitary gland (McCance et al., 2019). The anterior pituitary gland gets stimulated and causes the release of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (McCance et al., 2019). TSH then stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone (TH) (McCance et al., 2019). As the TH levels rise it creates a negative feedback that stops the release of TRH and TSH which then results in decreased TH production and secretion (McCance et al., 2019). Questions A decrease in what leads to the initiation of the feedback loop for the thyroid gland? Where is thyrotropin-releasing hormone synthesized and release from? References McCance, K.L., Huether, S.E., Brashers, V.L., & Rote, N.S. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier. Ortiga-Carvalho, T. M., Sidhaye, A. R., & Wondisford, F. E. (2014). Thyroid hormone receptors and resistance to thyroid hormone disorders. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 10(10), 582–591. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrendo.2014.143 What You Should Know About the Thyroid Feedback Loop. (2017). Picture retrieved from https://thyroidadvisor.com/know-thyroid-feedback-loop/
The Thyroid Gland Assignment Discussion
 

 
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