CJUS 01-Discussion Forum 4

Reply must be at least 200-300 words. For each thread, you must support your assertions with at least 2 citations from sources such as your textbook, peer-reviewed journal articles, and the Bible.

Textbook: Vito, G. F., & Higgins, G. E. (2015). Practical program evaluation for criminal justice. Waltham, MA: Elsevier. ISBN: 9781455777709.


When evaluators and researchers are gathering data for their programs, many times numbers are involved. These numbers are statistics collected to help explain what and why the program is needed, how well the program is doing, and to measure the population that the program is aimed at helping. With this week’s discussion board, descriptive statistics will be examined. The statistics will be implemented as it relates to the Police Accountability Program.

When an evaluator is using gathering information that involves numbers, there is a certain way that the research must go about it. This type of data collection is known as descriptive statistics. Per Marshall and Jonker in the article, An Introduction to Descriptive Statistics: A Review and Practical Guide (2010), “statistics are used to demonstrate the meaning of the data, and are based on numbers, e.g., the patient’s heart rate, or assigned numbers to qualitative attributes such as eye color. Statistics can be used descriptively to illustrate the characteristics of a group of observations i.e., the raw data; this is called descriptive statistics” (p.3). Descriptive statistics has different forms that allow for the research to be organized and clear. These forms are mean, median, mode, variance, and standard deviation. Each of these forms are different and have their own reasoning.

When it comes to applying these different forms of descriptive statistics to the anti-crime program, Police Accountability Program, it will be straight forward. Marshall and Jonker (2010) state, “it is essential to clarify the appropriate type of data needed to answer the research question at the design stage of research project, so it can be gathered. The level of measurement needs to be identified, allowing identification of the statistical procedure to be used and decision making on the sample size. Descriptive statistics are the easiest to undertake and interpret and they are a useful way to summarize data and provide a description of the sample” (p.4). The program will work with police departments. The participation group for the program would include a hundred or more people. The data that will be collected before the program will be race, time on the police force based upon groups of five or less, five to ten, ten to fifteen, and fifteen to twenty, the number of people who had been involved in acts of violence while on the job, and number of people who thought these violent interactions could have been deescalated. Once the participants have gone through the program, statistical data will be gathered on if any of the officers accept any accountability in the violent interaction and if violent encounters decreased with the participating officers in the last six months. The data is bring collected to see when who the participants are and the growth of the participants in the program.


Luke 14:28 states, “for which of you, desiring to build a tower, does not first sit down and count the cost, whether he has enough to complete it” (Luke 14:28, KJV). Descriptive statistics are needed to build upon the information provided. It allows for people for data to be given in a straightforward way. This allows for people to take away what they need to take away without all the extras.


Marshall, G., & Jonker, L. (2010). An introduction to descriptive statistics: A review and practical guide. Radiography (London, England. 1995), 16(4), e1-e7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radi.2010.01.001

Vito, G. F., & Higgins, G. E. (2015). Practical program evaluation for criminal justice. Waltham, MA: Elsevier.

The Mean, Median, Mode, Variance, and Standard Deviation of The Pre-Data for Your Anticrime/Prevention Program.

With there being five different forms of descriptive statistics for the program, there will be a lot of different ways to interpret the data. The different forms would be the mean median, mode, variance, and standard deviation.  Per Vito and Higgins in the textbook, Practical Program Evaluation for Criminal Justice (2015), “the most popular form of descriptive statistics as it is the average score in the distribution. This is the score that comes from adding the scored in a set of data and then dividing this sum by the total score. The mode is the number in the data that occurs most frequently. There is no statistical computation needed for this, it is just the most common number seen. The median is the midpoint of the data distribution. This is the point in the data where fifty percent of the scores are above or below, dividing the distribution unto equal halves. The variance is the mean of the sum of all squared deviations from the mean of any distribution of scored” (p.153-154).

The mean, median, mode, variance, and standard deviation of police brutality in Maryland is found. The information was gathered from the ACLU Of Maryland Briefing Paper on Deaths in Police Encounters in Maryland, 2010-2014 (2015).  The mean of people who died Between 2010-2014 is 6.4. The mode is 2. The median would be 3, variance would be63.64, and the Standard Deviation 7.97.


2 Timothy 3:16-17 states, “all Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, that the man of God may be competent, equipped for every good work” (2 Timothy 3:16-17, KJV). Numbers in research can be difficult. However, it is at times necessary. As long as the research is done correctly, it will provide the information needed.


ACLU Of Maryland Briefing Paper on Deaths In Police Encounters In Maryland, 2010-2014. (2015). Retrieved from https://www.aclu-md.org/sites/default/files/legacy/files/md_deaths_in_police_encounters.pdf

Vito, G. F., & Higgins, G. E. (2015). Practical program evaluation for criminal justice. Waltham, MA: Elsevier.

Description of The Inferential Statistics You Will Use to Analyze Your Anticrime/Prevention Program

With anticrime programs one of the most important things is the future of the program and how it may perform. One way that a researcher or evaluator can come to conclusions about there program is inferential statistics. Per Guetterman in the article, Basics of Statistics for Primary Care Research (2019), “inferential statistics can help researchers draw conclusions from a sample to a population. We can use inferential statistics to examine differences among groups and the relationships among variables” (p.2). This is important for the Police Accountability Program, because it will be me a logical ideal of if the program as it is set up will help create a better environment and climate to the police force. If the answer is no, then it will allow time for new groundwork to be done and a new plan created.  The testing tool that will be used for the Accountability Program is the chi squared test.

The Chi-square per McHugh in the article, The Chi-Square Test of Independence (2013), “can provide information not only on the significance of any observed differences, but also provides detailed information on exactly which categories account for any differences found. Thus, the amount and detail of information this statistic can provide renders it one of the most useful tools in the researcher’s array of available analysis tools. As with any statistic, there are requirements for its appropriate use, which are called “assumptions” of the statistic” (p.143). This testing allows for facts to be documented, along with the building on what the future of the program could possibly look like. This allows for growth to happen and that is what programs are supposed to do, grow and prosper.


Proverbs 1:1-33 says, “the proverbs of Solomon, son of David, king of Israel: To know wisdom and instruction, to understand words of insight, to receive instruction in wise dealing, in righteousness, justice, and equity; to give prudence to the simple, knowledge and discretion to the youth— Let the wise hear and increase in learning, and the one who understands obtain guidance” (Proverbs 1:1-33, KJV). Christians are about growth and learning. Descriptive statistical data helps give a numerical view of the program and the possibility. When attempting to get funding for a program, those numbers are important. While gathering the data and computing the data can be very tedious and at times difficult if the information is there to gather the data, it is also key to helping the program thieve.

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Threaded 1

Week 1 Discussion

The discussion assignment provides a forum for discussing relevant topics for this week on the basis of the course competencies covered.

For this assignment, make sure you post your initial response to the Discussion Area by the due date assigned.

To support your work, use your course and text readings and also use the South University Online Library. As in all assignments, cite your sources in your work and provide references for the citations in APA format.

Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ initial postings. Participate in the discussion by asking a question, providing a statement of clarification, providing a point of view with a rationale, challenging an aspect of the discussion, or indicating a relationship between two or more lines of reasoning in the discussion. Cite sources in your responses to other classmates. Complete your participation for this assignment by the end of the week.

Criminal justice organizations do not operate in isolation. The system is comprised of many interdependent organizations. While a manager or leader may have authority in only one specific agency, he or she must be aware of the many ways that the agency is connected to others in the system.

Assume that you are a manager of a county-wide criminal justice organization, such as a courthouse, probation office, or other organization of your choice.

  • Identify the other agencies within the system that your organization would interact with as part of its regular operation.
  • Identify organizations outside the criminal justice system that your agency must interact with.
  • Can management in one agency impact the performance in other agencies within the system? How?
  • How should leaders address the issues of competition and lack of cooperation between agencies? For example, consider a courthouse scheduling clerk who builds dockets without consideration for the transportation difficulties faced by the local jail.
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Project Assignment

Week 1 Project Assignment Task: Submit to complete this assignment Due February 21 at 11:59 PM

You are the police chief of Anywhere, U.S., a mid-sized community. You have worked with your organization to adapt to the changes faced after 9/11. Now you are faced with the closing of a major plant in your town. Almost 1,000 men and women are now unemployed and foreclosed signs are popping up everywhere. People are forced to move into cheaper rental housing and there is a social disorganization crisis. Mixed race and age neighborhoods are reporting higher crime rates, vandalism reports are rising, and DUI arrests are the highest in the state.

Your agency is also struggling with low morale because they see their neighbors losing all they have worked for. You must now work with internal and external forces to help your agency and town ride through this economic crisis.

Your first task is to develop a PowerPoint presentation of approximately 15 slides that detail the problems with the rising crime rates. Use articles and literature to explain the impact of the economic downturn, citing all sources in APA format. Your audience includes the mayor, superintendent of schools, and both business and cultural leaders in the community.

Include the following:

  • An analysis of the rising crime rates in your town. What are they and why are they related (or not)?
  • An internal impact analysis. How does the crime rate and economy impact your officers?
  • Four recommendations—2 with community impact and 2 with internal agency impact.
  • A plan of action if these are approved.
  • A list of necessary resources (monetary and otherwise).

Be sure to include references to literature to support your recommendations properly citing sources using APA format.

Support your analysis by citing creditable resources from your readings and assimilating research. Submit your response in a PowerPoint presentation with the file name SU_MCJ6001_W1_A3_LastName_FirstInitial.ppt to the Submissions Area by the due date assigned. Cite sources in APA format on a separate page.

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7 Discussion

  I need 1 paper for each assignment 195 words each paper.

1.) CRJ 435 Drug and gangs

National Gang Problem

Please watch the following recent statement issued by the President’s office:


  • What is the significance of the statement above issued by President Trump? Has there been any policy changes or new initiatives as a result of this statement? Support your answer with at least one quality reference.
  • Did the president rely on any of the “myths” described in Chapter 2 to illustrate his point?
  • Respond to one of your classmates. Do you think that this statement and any resulting policies mentioned will have any effect on gang activity in the future (increase or decrease)? Support your answer with at least one quality reference.

2.) CRJ 331 : forensic Psychology

Please respond to the following:

  • Many mental health professionals consider child custody cases to be the most ethically and clinically difficult cases to perform forensic evaluations on. Why do you think that is the case?
  • Be sure to respond to at least one of your classmates’ posts.

3.) ENG 315

Please address the following:

  • Think about a situation in which a presenter had a significant impact on you.
  • Describe the situation and analyze why the presenter was able to make such a strong connection with you and the other audience members.

4.) ENG 315 Recoring Presentation

Please address the following:

  • Discuss your experience with recording a presentation.
  • How is the preparation process going, and what obstacles have you faced?
  • What questions do you have about the process that your peers may be able to help answer?
  • Find a helpful tip about recording audio or video and share that here (with proper credit—a link to the source will be fine).

5.) CRJ 331 Wrightman Psychology

Please respond to the following:

  • According to Chapter 13 in Wrightsman’s Psychology and the Legal System, what is the purpose of an expert witness? What value can they bring to the court room?

6.) CRJ 435 Gang Activity in Urban Areas

Please use the following website to learn about gang activity by state/region:


  • What regions/cities have the highest presence of youth gang activity?
  • Why do you think the presence of youth gang criminal activity varies across cities?
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Written 3

1. What is traffic data?

2. What is location data?

3. What are the differences between content and non-content telecommunications and electronic communications data?

4. What does the ECPA permit law enforcement agencies to do?

5. How can U.S. government agencies obtain subscriber records from telecommunications and electronic communications service providers?

6. When can a U.S. government agency obtain a suspect’s email?

7. When can providers disclose emails and records to the U.S. government voluntarily?

8. How do the ECPA and the USA Patriot Act regulate the interception of electronic communications, government access to those communications, and government access to ISP records?

9. Which laws regulate personal information stored in government databases?

10. Which sections of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 were direct results of the financial scandals that occurred in 2001 and 2002?


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Testing For Bivariate Categorical Analysis

You have had plenty of practice with data analysis in the Discussions and hopefully you have received helpful and encouraging feedback from your colleagues. Now, for the last time in the course, it is time once again to put all of that good practice to use and answer a social research question using categorical statistical tools. As you begin the Assignment, be sure and pay close attention to the assumptions of the test. Specifically, make sure the variables are categorical level variables.

For this Assignment, you will consider three different scenarios. Each of these scenarios include a research question. You will examine each scenario, choose a categorical data analysis and run a sample test.

To prepare for this Assignment:

  • Review Chapters 10 and 11 of the Frankfort-Nachmias & Leon-Guerrero course text and the media program found in this week’s Learning Resources related to bivariate categorical tests.
  • Using the SPSS software, open the Afrobarometer dataset found in this week’s Learning Resources.
  • Next, review the Chi Square Scenarios found in this week’s Learning Resources and consider each research scenario for this Assignment.
  • Based on the dataset you chose and for each research scenario provided, using the SPSS software, choose a categorical data analysis and run a sample test.
  • Once you perform your categorical data analysis, review Chapter 11 of the Wagner text to understand how to copy and paste your output into your Word document.

For this Assignment:

Write a 1- to 2-paragraph analysis of your categorical data results for each research scenario. If you are using the Afrobarometer Dataset, report the mean of Q1 (Age). In your analysis, display the data for the output. Based on your results, provide an explanation of what the implications of social change might be.

Use proper APA format, citations, and referencing for your analysis, research question, and display of output.

 Week 11 Scenarios 

1. Results of your literature review conclude that trust in the police is an integral part of any democracy. You wish to test whether a relationship between trust in the police and presence of democracy (measured with dichotomous variable) exists in Africa. Using Afrobarometer 2015, please provide: a 1–2 APA style paragraph statement that furnishes an answer to this question, note the relevant statistics, comment on meaningfulness, and include your relevant SPSS output.

2. Following up on your previous analysis, you now wish to determine whether a relationship exists between citizen trust in police and whether respondents reside in rural, urban or semi-urban settings? Using Afrobarometer 2015, please provide: a 1–2 APA style paragraph statement that furnishes an answer to this question, note the relevant statistics, comment on meaningfulness, and include your relevant SPSS output. In addition, please comment on what could be influencing the results you obtained.

3. Is there a relationship between perceptions of current economic conditions and extent of a democracy? Using Afrobarometer 2015, please provide: a 1–2 APA style paragraph statement that furnishes an answer to this question, note the relevant statistics, comment on meaningfulness, and include your relevant SPSS output. In addition, please comment on what could be influencing the results you obtained.

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Case Study Media 5

Directions: You will view several episodes of a crime-related television program, logging information about your observations and using that data to develop a written case study of the program. The purpose is to discover the narratives and frames the producers advance through the programming and determine if these choices have an impact on the social construction of the issues raised. For example, does the program Live PD promote a positive image of law enforcement, and how is that emphasized? You will use the Content Analysis Worksheet (Excel version)Preview the document to record your observations and the Content Analysis Guide as a resource to develop the case study. A Word document version of the Content Analysis Worksheet (Word version)Preview the document is also available as an alternative to the Excel version.


  • This assignment is worth up to 100 points
  • Must cite any outside sources used; APA format required
  • A minimum of 500 words
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For your second post, I want everyone to think about the ethical implications of company behavior in relation to company legal obligations and consumer responses to actual and perceived failures of those obligations.  Further, what about consumer responsibilities? Enter the increasingly dramatic story of the super successful “every person” trading app- Robinhood!

Perhaps some of you currently use Robinhood or have heard about it because it has revolutionized access to financial markets/trading and the Gamestop/Blackberry/AMC stock short drama that has played out over the past several weeks.  However, with ease of access comes moral hazard problems…has Robinhood done a good job addressing this balance?  Have other similar trading apps?  What about consumer outcries and apps that provide easy (perhaps too easy?) legal redress, such as the Robot Lawyer “DO NOT PAY”? Review the links below and discuss this tenuous relationship between the law and ethics of profit-seeking in our App-driven world.

Robinhood: https://learn.robinhood.com/

Forbes: https://www.forbes.com/sites/sergeiklebnikov/2020/06/17/20-year-old-robinhood-customer-dies-by-suicide-after-seeing-a-730000-negative-balance/#3a66e3816384

(Also note the US Congressional Investigations into Robinhood for the ease of trade and now Gamestop debacle)

CNBC Robinhood Gamestop Force Stop Trades: https://www.cnbc.com/2021/01/28/robinhood-customer-sues-trading-app-over-gamestop-restrictions.html

Robot Lawyer App: https://donotpay.com/

Sample Newly Filed Classaction Litigation Against Robinhood:

(The list continues to grow daily!)-


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Potential Evaluation Subjects

In your initial post, briefly describe three policies or programs you are considering as the subject of the Final Paper, and explain the impact of any relevant political and ethical issues associated with the program evaluation. List the reasons you are considering each program. Explain political ramifications, both intended and inadvertent, of the programs or policies you have selected as possible topics for the Final Paper. In addition, examine any potential ethical issues or dilemmas that could be a byproduct of the evaluation you are proposing for the program or policy. In your analysis, take into account such issues as the scope of the programs under consideration, practical and logistical issues affecting the proposed evaluation, and any theoretical orientation you will use in your Final Paper.

The focus of the Final Paper will be on the creation of an evaluation proposal suitable for presentation in a criminal justice setting or agency. The proposal will center on needs assessment, impact monitoring, and the application of quantitative and/or qualitative techniques in the assessment of the selected program or policy. Rossi, Lipsey, and Freeman (2004) discuss the social context of evaluation. Your evaluation proposal should assess the effectiveness of a program or policy, addressing a specific problem proposed or developed as a solution to a contemporary issue in your chosen area of specialization within the Masters in Criminal Justice program: Law Enforcement and Corrections Administration, Cybercrime and Technology, Forensic Science, or Homeland Security. Utilize research skills to locate a minimum of 15 appropriate scholarly sources to support your statements within the required sections below. Small sections of the evaluation proposal will be completed throughout the progression of the course. Students can use those sections verbatim within the text of the Final Paper if they so choose. The evaluation proposal will be assessed based on the inclusion of the following elements:


Potential Evaluation Subjects

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