lab report

STEP 1: WHAT EXPERIMENTAL IDEA DO YOU WANT TO TEST? 

Choose something you can tangible test that could either increase or decrease the heart rate. You can really get creative with this, but make sure that the experiment is something that you can feasibly perform. 

Note: These ideas and descriptions should be included in your individual formal lab report introduction section.

Example Testing Idea: Test how physical activity increases heart rate. 

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Example Introduction: Exercise is known to increase heart rate. [Insert more background information here with examples of other studies or work show that exercise increases heart rate with proper citations]. I want to test if the intensity of the exercise can influence the extent at which the heart rate increases. Therefore, I am going to test the changes to heart rate between a moderate amount of activity and a more strenuous amount of activity. To do so, I will examine different ways to go up and down a flight of steps. The moderate activity will be to walk up and down a flight of steps, while the strenuous activity will be to run up and down a flight of steps. I will compare the average heart rate of all testing subjects performing both activities. 

STEP 2: WRITE A HYPOTHESIS/TESTABLE PREDICTION

This hypothesis should be formatted in an “If, then” statement. Your hypothesis statement should look like the “testable prediction” in section 1.7 of your textbook.

Example Hypothesis/Testable Prediction: If exercise increases heart rate, then I hypothesis that the more strenuous activity of running up and down the steps will have a higher increase in heart rate than the less strenuous activity of walking up and down the steps.

STEP 3: WRITE A MATERIALS LIST

Determine what materials you would need to complete the experiment beyond just a stop watch. The materials you need would depend on your experimental design.

Example Materials List:

  • Stop watch
  • A staircase with three flights of stairs (preferably the same number of stairs).

STEP 4: WRITE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING EXPERIMENT WITH PROPER CONTROLS

Determine how you will test your experiment. Determine what controls you need to have. You can either test your experiment by yourself or recruit friends and family. You should have a total of four separate heart rate results for each testing stimuli or control to be able to calculate the mean and standard deviation. For example, this could be either you repeating it four times or having four people (you + three friends/family) each doing the experiment once.  Make sure you are VERY clear in your procedures what is being done and by whom. 

In order to plan an experiment to test your hypothesis, you will need to know what variables you want to test and have the proper controls in place.  For your procedures, try and keep all variables constant except the one stimuli are activity you want to test.

There are two main types variables within experiments:

  • Anindependent variableis the variable that is manipulated/changed within the experiment.
  • A dependent variableis the variable that the investigator expects to change as a result of changing the independent variable. This is what we measure during an experiment, which for this lab is heart rate.

 

There are two main types of controls used within experiments:

  • Positive control:given a treatment or condition that is expected to produce the results of the experiment.
  • Negative control: given a treatment that is NOT expected to produce the results of the experiment (e.g. placebo).

Note: In this lab, you will definitely need to include a negative control. That could be as simple as measuring your resting heart rate before the activities/stimuli. 

 

Example Procedure:

Independent Variable: speed at which students move up the stairs

Dependent Variable: heart rate (bpm)

Negative Control: resting heart rate (bpm) before activity

 

  • All test subjects will start on Floor 1 of a three story staircase.
  • Before beginning the experiment, all test subjects will rest by the stairs for 5 minutes to allow for their resting heart rates (RHR) to return to normal following the walk to the stairs.
  • We will test walking up and down the stairs first.
  • Each test subject will walk up the stairs to Floor 3 and back down the stairs to Floor 1 using a non-hurried pace.
  • Immediately following their return to Floor 1, they will measure their heart rate. Another person will use the stopwatch, if available.

 

  • Each test subject will wait at least 10 minutes between walking up the stairs and running up and down the stairs so as to return to their RHR. Each test subject should double check that they are at or within 2 bpm of their original RHR before beginning.
  • Each test subject will run up the stairs to Floor 3 and back down the stairs to Floor 1.
  • Immediately following their return to Floor 1, they will measure their heart rate. Another person will use the stopwatch, if available.
  • Each test subject  will record their heart beat in bpm.

 

 

In your Lab 8 full lab report, you need to include the following sections in your formal lab report:

  • Introduction
  • Hypothesis
  • Materials/Procedures (includes a deviation section at end)
  • Results – Data and written summary
  • Discussion
  • Full reference list (bibliography) -> need at least two references in APA format (not including lab manual).

 

Notes on the Lab Report:

  • You need to paraphrase any information used from your sources (lab manual and outside sources) and properly cite that information as detailed below. Paraphrasing means writing the information in your own words, which does not mean just rearranging the order of information or changing out words for synonyms. You CANNOT directly quote information from a source for this paper as that is not acceptable when writing a lab report. 

 

Below is a description of what to include in each section:

Introduction:

In your OWN words (DO NOT copy the manual) write in paragraph form the following:

1.Describe WHY the experiment is being performed:

  • Give general background for the study (i.e. background on cardiovascular system and heart rate) using information from another reference source. Make sure to include citations.
  • Explain the purpose/goal of the study.

2.End with a couple sentence summary of what you were specifically testing and how you tested it. 

Hypothesis:

  • You should have a clear section of your report after your introduction with the heading hypothesis and your hypothesis stated underneath it.
  • Hypothesis statement should include:
    • A specific result you expect to see following your experiment
    • An explanation/justification for why you expect to see that result

Procedures:

  • You should start by listing all the materials used in your experiment under a heading of “Materials”
  • Under a heading “Procedures”, you should list what you did to conduct your experiment in bullet points.
    • If any deviations, changes, or mistakes occurred during the experiment, make sure to write them down in a “Deviations Section” at the end of your procedures.
    • If no deviations, make sure to write no deviations under the “Deviations Section”.

Results:

  • You should include all calculations made during the experiment and make sure to include appropriate units (e.g. bpm).
  • You should have your results compiled in a clear format (e.g. using a table of result values and either a bar graph or scatter plot).
    • Need a detailed, informative figure or table caption describing what each result represents.
  • Following your data section, you should have a written summary of your results in paragraph form stating the key points of your experimental results.

Discussion

In your discussion section make sure to include the following points:

  • Discuss whether results support your hypothesis. If your results do not support hypothesis, suggest some reasons, errors, or confounding factors that might have influenced your results.
  • Consider your mean and standard deviation heart rate values. Discuss the variability of data among the different members of your group in response to the stimuli. Describe some factors that could cause variability among the trials and/or individuals tested.
  • What conclusions can you draw from your experiment? Explain what results lead you to draw these conclusions.
  • Would you change anything to your experiment if you repeated it in the future in terms of limitations in the experiment or how you implemented the experiment?

References:

You need to include two credible outside references in your lab introduction section (not including your lab manual or PowerPoint). Using APA format, you need to include:

  1. An in-text or parenthetical citation for each reference when you use the information from that reference in your lab introduction (i.e. internal citation).
  2. A full citation for each reference in your reference section at the end of your report.

 

IMPORTANT ACADEMIC HONESTY DETAILS:  READ THIS!

  • You need at least TWO sources NOT your lab manual or PowerPoint/recorded lecture to obtain information for your background and provide the proper citations for it.
  • Any use of sources outside of your lab manual (which would include the background PowerPoint presentation) need to be cited in proper APA format (both in-text/parenthetical and full citation are needed). Lack of both citations is an academic honesty violation for plagiarism.
  • You also cannot copy words or just slightly rearrange words from the lab manual for your introduction. You need to paraphrase the information and put it into your own words. Direct quotes are NOT allowed in this submission. Failure to do either of these will result in an academic honesty violation.
  • This report needs to be done individual.
  • Failure to cite your sources BOTH internally AND at the end of your report will be considered plagiarism and will result in an Academic Honesty Violation.
  • If you have taken this course in a previous semester, you CANNOT use the same project and submit the same lab report. Doing so is an academic honesty violation. 

 

Tips for APA citations:

https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/general_format.html (Links to an external site.)

http://howardcc.libguides.com/c.php?g=701651&p=4979391

NOTE PLEASE FIND ATTACHED HEART RATE FOR ME AND 3 OTHER STUNDENTS IN MY GROUP FOR THE EXPERIMENT 

Rubric

Full Lab Report Rubric -Lab 10

Full Lab Report Rubric -Lab 10

CriteriaRatingsPts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeIntroduction Section

2.5 to >2.09 pts

Background information is accurate and has the appropriate level of specificity to provide concise and useful context to aid the reader’s understanding AND the writer provides a clear understanding of why the experiment is being performed AND the write provides a thorough yet concise specific summary of what the group was testing

2.09 to >1.66 pts

Background information contains some minor inaccuracies or some minor emissions key points OR the writer does not clearly understand why the experiment was performed OR the summary is not specific to what the students tested.

1.66 to >0.0 pts

Background information contains substantial inaccuracies or key emissions of important details OR the writer did not discuss why the experiment was performed OR there is no summary statement provided.

0 pts

No introduction provided

2.5 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeHypothesis

1 to >0.5 pts

Hypothesis written in proper format AND addresses a specific experimental result AND provides an explanation or justification for why that result is expected.

0.5 to >0.0 pts

Hypothesis is not written in a proper format by not including an explanation or justification for why expected OR the result is not specific to the experiment.

0 pts

No hypothesis provided

1 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeProcedure/Method Section

2 to >1.67 pts

All materials in the experiment are included AND all steps of procedure are included with appropriate details AND deviations in the procedure or lack-there-of are discussed.

1.67 to >1.33 pts

Some materials are missing from the list OR some minor details or steps are missing from the procedure OR no deviations or lack of deviations are addressed.

1.33 to >0.0 pts

No materials are provided OR substantial key steps are missing from the procedure

0 pts

No procedures provided

Note: Any student who does not participate at all in the group communication and experimental design but submits a full lab report will receive a 0 on this section and on the communication and experimental design submission section (i.e. -5 points).

2 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeResults Section

3 to >2.51 pts

Uses a format or graph type which highlights relationships between the data points or other relevant aspects of the data in a clearly readable format AND graphs or tables contain informative, concise and complete captions AND results summary contains concise, thorough written statements of all key results.

2.51 to >1.99 pts

Just missing calculations for mean and standard deviation. However, does use a format or graph type which highlights relationships between the data points or other relevant aspects of the data in a clearly readable format AND graphs or tables contain informative, concise and complete captions AND results summary contains concise, thorough written statements of all key results.

1.99 to >1.01 pts

Graph types or table formats are not appropriate for data OR data is not easily interpreted from the tables/graphs OR captions are included, but are not informative OR results summary is missing some key results.

1.01 to >0.0 pts

Only provided a table rather than both a table and graph OR captions are missing OR no results summary is provided.

0 pts

No results provided

3 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeDiscussion Section

3 to >2.51 pts

Conclusions are throughly explained and justified by data AND results are discussed in terms of whether or not they support the hypothesis AND conclusions address and logically explain conflicting data (IF APPLICABLE) AND conclusions discuss limitations in the experiment or the writer’s implementation of the experiment and what could improve on them if repeated.

2.51 to >2.0 pts

Conclusions are not fully justified by the data OR the results are not discussed in terms of whether or not they support the hypothesis OR the conflicting data is addressed, but no explanation for why the data might conflict is provided (IF APPLICABLE) OR the limitations are discussed, but the write does not provide a way to improve upon them.

2 to >0.0 pts

Conclusions are provided, but are not justified by the data OR no conflicting data is addressed OR limitations are not discussed.

0 pts

No conclusion/discussion provided

3 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeReferences and Documentation

2 to >1.67 pts

Sources used are relevant, substantial, and authoritative, demonstrating creativity and scholarly research AND information is introduced and incorporated smoothly and appropriately AND documentation is clear and free of errors.

1.67 to >1.33 pts

Sources are adequate, but may be too general OR information is occasionally weakly incorporated or is unconnected to the content of the essay OR documentation is generally close to proper APA formatting, but may contain some minor errors.

1.33 to >0.0 pts

Sources are lacking or inappropriate OR information from sources is not adequately incorporated into the body of the essay OR documentation is not close to proper APA formatting.

0 pts

No references used.

Note: A student who does not include any in-text/parenthetical citations AND/OR full reference list citations for their sources will receive a 0 for the whole assignment and an Academic Honesty violation.

2 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeConstruction of Paper

2 pts

Well-written with complete sentences and proper grammar.

1.67 pts

Well-written but in need of proofreading.

1.33 pts

Poorly written, with sentence fragments, subject-verb agreement problems, and substantial spelling mistakes.

0 pts

Very poorly written with extensive grammatical and spelling mistakes.

2 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeGE.SR.1

Understanding scientific concepts, principles, terminology, symbols, and/or notation.

threshold: 3.0 pts

4 pts

Exceeds Objective | Demonstrates comprehensive understanding. Highly consistent accuracy in explanations of concepts, definition of terms, and/or use of symbols and notation. Minimal or no errors present.

3 pts

Meets Objective | Demonstrates understanding. Consistent accuracy in explanations of concepts, definition of terms, and/or use of symbols and notation. Some minor errors are present.

2 pts

Does Not Fully Meet Objective | Demonstrates only partial understanding. Inconsistent accuracy in explanations of concepts, definition of terms, and/or use of symbols and notation. Many errors may are present.

1 pts

Does Not Meet Objective | Does not demonstrate understanding. Inaccurate or absent explanations of concepts, definition of terms, and/or use of symbols and notation.

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeGE.SR.2

Applying scientific reasoning to solve a problem or address a question.

threshold: 3.0 pts

4 pts

Exceeds Objective | Applies correct scientific reasoning to consistently determine and clearly express correct answers. Minimal or no errors present.

3 pts

Meets Objective | Applies correct scientific reasoning to consistently determine and express correct answers. Makes only minor errors determining or expressing answers.

2 pts

Does Not Fully Meet Objective | Applies limited scientific reasoning to inconsistently determine and express answers; reasoning and/or answers are often incorrect. Makes major errors determining or expressing answers.

1 pts

Does Not Meet Objective | Does not apply any discernible scientific reasoning. Cannot determine or express correct answers.

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeGE.SR.3

Analyzing, evaluating, and/or interpreting data and justifying the reasonableness of a conclusion.

threshold: 3.0 pts

4 pts

Exceeds Objective | Correctly and thoroughly analyzes, evaluates, and/or interprets data. Draws reasonable and correct conclusions with complete justification. Data analysis and conclusion justification are consistently correct.

3 pts

Meets Objective | Correctly analyzes, evaluates, and/or interprets data. Draws reasonable conclusions with sufficient justification. Data analysis and conclusion justification are mostly correct.

2 pts

Does Not Fully Meet Objective | Incorrectly and/or incompletely analyzes, evaluates, and/or interprets data. Draws conclusions with insufficient or incorrect justification. Data analysis and conclusion justification are inconsistent.

1 pts

Does Not Meet Objective | Does not analyze, evaluate and/or interpret data. Draws no conclusion, or conclusions that are unreasonable and lack justification. Data analysis and conclusion justification are consistently incorrect.

Total Points: 15.5

 

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Lab Report

Example lab report of Synthesis of potassium tris (oxalato) ferrate (III) trihydrate Posted by Nurul Yunaliyana Experiment 5: Synthesis of potassium tris (oxalato) ferrate (III) trihydrate Purpose: to synthesis potassium tris (oxalato) ferrate (III) trihydrate ,K3 [Fe (C2O4)3]. 3H2O. Introduction: Ferrous ammonium sulfate, Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2. 6H2O is dissolved in a slightly acid solution, excess oxalic acid, H2C2O4, is added and the following reaction takes place: Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2. 6H2O + H2C3O4 FeC2O4(s) + H2SO4 + (NH4)2SO4 + 6H2O FeC2O4 is finely divided precipitate and tends to be colloidal.
However, heating the solution causes it to coagulate and facilitates separating the precipitate from the solution. Potassium oxalate is added to the FeC2O4 precipitate, which produces a slightly basic solution for the oxidation of the ferrous ion to the ferric ion, by hydroxide, H2O2. The following reaction takes place: H2O + HO2- +2Fe2+ 2Fe3+ + 3OH- The OH- ion concentration of the solution is high enough so that some of the Fe3+ reacts with OH- to form ferric hydroxide(brown precipitate) as follows: Fe3+ + 3OH- Fe(OH)3 With the addition of more H2C2O4, the Fe(OH)3 dissolves and the soluble complex K3[fe(c2o4)3]. h20 is formed according to : 3k2C2O4 + 2Fe(OH)3 + 3H2C2O4 2K3[Fe(c2o4)3]. 3H20 + 3h2o Ethanol is added to the solution to cause the complex iron salt to precipitate. Data analysis and Discussion: In this experiment, I have studied how to synthesis coordination compound. Coordination compounds are formed when a neutral metal atom: Fe acting as a Lewis acid, reacts with some neutral molecules, acting as Lewis bases; or when a metallic cation, acting as a Lewis acid, reacts with any of a variety of organic or inorganic molecules, cations, or anions, acting as Lewis bases.
These Lewis bases: C2O4 and H2O are called ligands. (Lewis acids are electron pair acceptors and Lewis bases are electron pair donors. Ferrous ammonium solution is added with oxalic acid dihydrate solution will form yellow solution with yellow precipitate. Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2. 6H2O + H2C3O4 FeC2O4(s) + H2SO4 + (NH4)2SO4 + 6H2O Then it is heated to boiling and the supernatant is decanted. As it is added with solid potassium oxalate, it is allowed to heat at 40 0 C and drop wise added with H2O2 and the solution turns to brown with precipitate for the oxidation of the ferrous ion to the ferric ion.

H2O + HO2- +2Fe2+ 2Fe3+ + 3OH- Fe3+ + 3OH- Fe (OH) 3 Next, more oxalic acid dihydrate is added until the solution turns to colourless. 3k2C2O4 + 2Fe (OH) 3 + 3H2C2O4 2K3 [Fe (c2o4)3]. 3H20 + 3h2O The colourless solution is boiled then it turns to pale green solution. The solution is filtered then leaves for crystallization. After that, the green crystal is filtered and washed with 1:1 ethanol/ water and cooled acetone. The mass of bright (luminescent) green crystals is obtained which is 3. 2822 g. So, the percent yield of K3[Fe(C2O4)3]. H2O that I have obtained is 47. 72 %. The precautions that we must take are while heat the solution of ferrous ammonium sulfate and solution of oxalic acid dihydrate as it will bump. Next, beware of temperature (at least 40 0 C) of solution when add H2O2 into the solution. The next experiment is determination of the percentage of ligands in coordination compounds. Conclusion : I have studied how to synthesis coordination compound which is potassium tris (oxalato) ferrate (III) trihydrate ,K3 [Fe (C2O4)3]. H2O. The mass of bright (luminescent) green crystals is obtained which is 3. 2822 g. So, the percent yield of K3[Fe(C2O4)3]. 3H2O that I have obtained is 47. 72 %.
Reference:

1. Hadariah Bahron, Kamariah Muda, S. Rohaiza S. Omar, Karimah Kassim (2011).
Inorganic Chemistry. Experiments for Undergraduates, UPENA UiTM 2008.
http://chem. science. oregonstate. edu/courses/ch221-3s/ch223s/2010_U_session_1/Report_Guideline_Green_Crystal_Sp_2010. pdf

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