music 110 about world music assignment journal

music 110 about world music assignment journal

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music 110 about world music assignment journal

Complete the following Chapters 1-6 Music Journals and save your responses in a WORD (.docx) file.

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CHAPTER ONE—WHAT, IN THE WORLD IS MUSIC?

Your Name

Our Chapter 1 Objectives

In this chapter, students will learn the following:

· Ways in which diverse peoples define what is and is not music

· Five propositions for exploring world music

Chapter Overview

Diverse peoples of the world define music in different ways. The question “What is music?” can yield radically different responses. Five propositions for exploring world music provide a point of departure regarding what music is and what it is not. These propositions should stimulate you to think about and discuss your own ideas about what music is.

Part 1: The Informative Content and Some Questions

1. Define and/or Comment on the following terms:

Key Terms

Definitions, Explanations or Comments

Ethnocentrism

Qu’ran

Qu’ranic recitation

Tone

Human Intention and Perception Approach

Five Propositions for Exploring World Music

Explanations or Comments

The basic property of all music is sound

Sounds are organized into music by people; thus, music is a form of humanly organized sound

The sounds (and silences) that comprise a musical work are organized in some way

Music is a product of human intention and perception

The term music is inescapably tied to western culture and its assumptions

2. This example (CD 1, track 1) by a well-known Brazilian band was used to a. start a riot at a song contest b. help McDonalds sell hamburgers c. challenge listeners’ conception of silence d. recite the Qur’an Answer:

3. This piece (CD 1, track 3, “Manzairaku”) is an example of a. Qur’anic chant b. Japanese gagaku c. John Cage’s 4’33″ d. None of the above Answer:

4. Which of the following is FALSE regarding this example (CD 1, track 2, “Ode to Joy”) a. It is comprised of tones and each tone has duration, frequency, amplitude and timbre b. It is intended to be perceived as music by its performers c. It is understood and appreciated by all people everywhere d. It is a form of humanly organized sound Answer:

5. This example (CD 1, track 4, “Khawatim Soorat: Al baqara”) a. is practiced by Muslims b. is humanly organized sound c. is not considered music by its practitioners d. all of the above Answer:

6. The “musical elements” you perceive during a performance of John Cage’s piece 4’33″ in a concert hall might include the a. humming of the air-conditioning system b. coughing of someone in the audience c. creaking of seats in the audience d. all of the above Answer:

Part 2: Your Chapter 1 Reflections

What, in this chapter, was new to me?

What, in this chapter, would I like to know more about?

Listen to all of the music examples from Chapter 1.

Of the musical examples in this chapter, which did I enjoy the most? Why?

Please include any of the “Musical Characteristics To Listen For” you notice in the music.

Of the musical examples in this chapter, which did I enjoy the least or find to be challenging to listen to? Why?

Please include any of the “Musical Characteristics To Listen For” you notice in the music.

Other thoughts or comments about our Chapter 1

CHAPTER TWO—HOW MUSIC LIVES: A musicultural approach

Complete the following and save it in WORD (.docx).

Your Name

Our Chapter 2 Objectives

In this chapter, students will learn the following:

· The anthropological and ethnomusicological definitions of music as sound and culture.

· Different types of musical meaning

· The process of syncretism

· Connections between music and spirituality, dance, ritual, commodity, and patronage

· The processes of musical transmission and creation

· The process of creative transformation which is an important part of music traditions across the world

Chapter Overview

Identity, meaning, transmission, and creation in music occur at the intersection of music as sound and music as culture.

Ethnomusicology and anthropology have examined this intersection resulting in definitions and concepts of culture.

Identities and expressions may be discovered through examinations of society, culture, community, nation, diaspora, and self. These identities may then come together through the process of syncretism.

Musical tradition is a process of creative transformation. These transformations are very much a part of music traditions worldwide.

Chapter 2

Part 1: The Informative Content

1. Define and/or Comment the following terms:

Key Terms

Definitions or Explanations or comments

Ethnomusicology

Fieldwork

Culture (Tylor definition)

Cultures (as social entities distinct from societies)

Society

Social institutions

Identity

Nation-state

Nation

Nationalist music

Diaspora

Virtual communities

Musical syncretism

Musicultural

Rituals

Compositions

Improvisation

Arranging

Interpretation

Tradition (as a process)

Chapter 2 Music Journal – Part 2: Questions/Music Listening and Analysis

The Gamelan—An Indonesian Orchestra of Bronze

A gamelan consists of a large number of instruments—mainly idiophone percussion instruments such as gongs, drums, cymbals, and xylophone-like bronze metallophones played in intricately coordinated ways. Although gamelan musicians from Bali and Java employ similar instruments, have related histories, and musical principles, their musics are strikingly different in sound and character.

2. Listen to CD1-7 (Java) and CD2-12 (Bali) and describe the sounds, timbres, and elements of each. Answer the questions in the Chart below to compare and contrast the two performances.

CD1-7

CD2-12

Style(s)

Javanese Gamelan

Balinese Gamelan

Briefly describe the various sounds

How do you think the sounds may have been produced?

In which ways are the performances similar?

In which ways are the performances dissimilar?

Multiphonic Throat Singing

Singers in the khoomii tradition of Mongolia, the khoomei tradition of Tuva, and the chant traditions of Tibetan monks produce simultaneous multiple tones through manipulations of their vocal apparatus, as demonstrated, for example, on CD ex. # 1-6. In this recording, all sounds except for the stringed lute-like instrument (tobshuur) are produced by the human voice.

3. Listen carefully to Chandami Nutag CD1-6. List and describe the various sounds you are hearing in this music from Mongolia.

4. Listen to and write a response to a performance by the late Paul Pena on CD1-18. Paul Pena was a blind blues musician who mastered the kargyraa subtype of Tuvan khoomei. Paul traveled to Tuva and won the national khoomei competition with this song. Describe the sounds Pena produces here – how would you categorize them? Blues? Tuvan? A combination of both?

5. Answer the questions in the Chart below to compare and contrast Chandami Nutag CD1-6 and Kargyraa Moan CD1-18:

CD1-6

CD1-18

Style(s)

Mongolian khoomei

Blues/Tuvan khoomei synthesis

Briefly describe the various vocal sounds

How do you think the sounds may have been produced?

In which ways are the performances similar?

In which ways are the performances dissimilar?

Chapter 2 Music Journal – Part 3: Music Beyond Our Textbook

6. Select and profile two songs from sources beyond our textbook recordings—from your own music collection—mp3, mp4 downloads, CD’s and DVD’s; and from numerous web sources for music and video such as YouTube, npr.org, etc.

One song must be an example of World Music—traditional/indigenous or popular, the other song can be from any country (United States is OK) and represent any genre(rock, hip-hop, blues, gospel, black metal, R&B, jazz, country, soul, etc.)

Your two song selections are not exclusively tied to Chapter 2 Content–this gives you latitude to freely select music you ENJOY and WANT TO LISTEN TO.

Include material facts (you may not be able to provide all of these – so its OK to omit those you are unable to find) about each song you select such as:

· The song title

· The name of the band or performing artist, the musicians and their respective instruments or voice, the composer(s), the recording dates, and record label.

· The style “genre” of music represented in your song.

· Connections between the song and society.

· The importance of the primary performer of the song.

· A history of the song such as considerations of other performers who may have also recorded it—a cover song.

· List any musical characteristics you notice in the music such as tempo, texture, timbres, mood conveyed, meter, dynamics, improvisational style, etc. Look at our “Musical Characteristics To Listen For” page for help with this.

· Your connections to the song – its meaning for you, its identity.

· What mood was conveyed in the music? How did the music make you feel?

· Did the music remind you of other music you were already familiar with?

· Was the music complex – many different layers of musical activity going on at the same time; or was the texture less busy – containing just one, two, or three different parts occurring at the same time.

Part 4: Your Chapter 2 Reflections

What, in this chapter, was new to me?

What, in this chapter, would I like to know more about?

Listen to all of the music examples from Chapter 2. Of the musical examples in this chapter, which did I enjoy the most? Why? Please include any of the “Musical Characteristics To Listen For” you notice in the music.

Of the musical examples in this chapter, which did I enjoy the least or find to be challenging to listen to? Why? Please include any of the “Musical Characteristics To Listen For” you notice in the music.

Other thoughts or comments about our Chapter 2

Additional music to consider:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=60cZRB6V24gLinks to an external site. https://canvas.seattlecentral.edu/images/play_overlay.png(Mongolian khoomii folkloric performance with instrumental ensemble accompaniment)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tlWgDCtHpJ8Links to an external site. https://canvas.seattlecentral.edu/images/play_overlay.png(Javnese dance with gamelan accompaniment)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=544xzCzj_UkLinks to an external site. https://canvas.seattlecentral.edu/images/play_overlay.png(Couples “Rabbit Dance” at a powwow, Fallon Rodeo Days, 1996)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3s9z3IOpH1g&mode=related&search=Links to an external site. https://canvas.seattlecentral.edu/images/play_overlay.png(Powwow competition dancing: Men’s Traditional dance)

CHAPTER 3—HOW MUSIC WORKS, PART I: Rhythm

Complete the following and save it in WORD (.docx).

Your Name

Our Chapter 3 Objectives

In this chapter students will learn:

· The four basic properties of tones

· The elements of rhythm

· Insights on how various cultures employ rhythm in their musics

Chapter Overview

There are four basic properties of tones—duration, frequency, amplitude, and timbre. This chapter focuses upon rhythm, the fundamental musical correlate of music. The elements of rhythm are beat, subdivision, meter, metric cycle, accent, syncopation, tempo, and free rhythm. Each of these elements is explored through participatory exercises and recorded examples.

Chapter 3 Part 1: The Informative Content

1. Define the following terms:

Key Terms

Definitions or Explanations or comments

Amplitude

Frequency

Duration

Rhythm

Timbre

Eighth notes

Sixteenth notes

Subdivision

Beat

Measure

Meter

Metric cycle

Syncopation

Accents

Tempo

Part 2: Listening, Identifying, and Describing what you are hearing

Open a tab on your computer, click on our course in Canvas and open the “Music Characteristics You Need To Know and Listen For” page to use while you are listening to the following selections–this will help you to “target” specific characteristics with your ears while the music is playing.

2. Click and listen below. After hearing the Theme 0:00 to 0:45, what did you notice about the music in Variation I 0:46 to 1:25? How was it different than the original Theme? It what way(s) was the original Theme re-packaged?

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) Twelve Variations on Ah vous dirai-je, Maman, The Theme followed by Variations I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and VIILinks to an external site. https://canvas.seattlecentral.edu/images/play_overlay.png

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) Twelve Variations on Ah vous dirai-je, Maman Variations VIII, IX, X, XI, and XIILinks to an external site. https://canvas.seattlecentral.edu/images/play_overlay.png

3. As you listen to each new Variation starting with Variation II, make note of how the music has changed from the previous Variation, notice how the original Theme is being presented in each Variation. Use the material in Chapter 3 pages 34-37 and the “Music Characteristics You Need To Know and Listen For” page to assist you here.

raviwith allarakha

Ala Rakha (1919-2000) tabla, Ravi Shankar (1920-2012), sitar and Kamala Chakvravarty (1928) on tanpura

4. Listen to the first 5 minutes of the raga and write down what you notice about rhythms and about tempo here. How is this music different from the Mozart music you just listened to above?

Ravi Shankar – Raga Nata Bhatrav – A Morning Raga with Ravi on Sitar, Alla Rakha on tabla, and Kamala Chakvravarty on tanpura. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. https://canvas.seattlecentral.edu/images/play_overlay.png 5. After listening to the first 5 minues of the raga, jump ahead to the 9:00 mark. Describe what you notice happening in this section of the raga? As you did for the opening 5 minutes, write down what you notice about rhythms and about tempo here. How is the raga evolving from the 9:00 mark forward? What happens just past the 13:10 mark? What mood is being conveyed to the listener now and how is this a contrast to the opening 5 minutes of the raga? How does the raga evolve from the 13:13 mark forward to the end?

6. From Our World Music Listening Links page, click on the link to CD-1 and then Listen to 1-20 = 020 “Cielito Lindo” (Mexican mariachi).

This piece is in: a. duple meter (2 beats per measure – 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2) b. triple meter (3 beats per measure – 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3) c. quadruple meter (4 beats per measure – 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4) d. seven-beat meter – (7 beats per measure – 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 3 4 5 6 7)

Answer:

7. The accent pattern for the meter of this piece is arranged as follows (S=strong beat, w=weak beat): a. S w w S w w… b. S w w w S w w w… c. S w S w S w S w… d. S w w S w S w w S w…

Answer:

8. The tempo of this music has: a. a steady, very fast tempo b. a tempo that changes from very slow to very fast c. a steady, medium tempo d. an inconsistent tempo

Answer:

Chapter 3 Music Journal

Part 3: Some Additional Cool Music to consider for your Chapter 3 Reflections in Part 4

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KWvb0iwL70MLinks to an external site. https://canvas.seattlecentral.edu/images/play_overlay.png

Karandila Roma [Gypsy] brass band in a club.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=99K5aTSDF20&feature=relatedLinks to an external site. https://canvas.seattlecentral.edu/images/play_overlay.png

Bratq Angelovi Roma (Gypsy) Brass Band in performance. Note the two different technologies in Trumpet design—one has the common modern piston valves while the other has rotary valves much like those on a French Horn.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7CDAUsewBSMLinks to an external site. https://canvas.seattlecentral.edu/images/play_overlay.png

Karandila Roma Gypsy Culture Brass Band from Bulgaria

Note the two woodwind instruments employed here—the clarinet and the alto saxophone. And another good look at the two different technologies in Trumpet design—piston valve and rotary valve models.

http://www.theworld.org/2010/12/01/karandila-junior/Links to an external site.

Karandila Jr.

http://www.theworld.org/2010/12/01/karandila-junior/Links to an external site.

Karandila Jr. at the Ost Club in Bulgaria

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yjJDv1IeF8ILinks to an external site. https://canvas.seattlecentral.edu/images/play_overlay.png

The Mariachi Band:

Guitarron – (the very large guitar shaped instrument with 6 strings—responsible for the bass notes in the music)

Vihuela – (the 5 string convex shaped guitar-like instruement),

The Classic or Spanish Guitar

Trumpets

Violins

Chapter 3 Music Journal Part 4: Reflections

What, in this chapter, was new to me?

What song seems to stand out for you here?

What, in this chapter, would I like to know more about?

CHAPTER FOUR—HOW MUSIC WORKS, PART II: Pitch

Complete the following and save it in WORD (.docx).

Chapters 4 Music Journal

Your Name

Our Chapter 4 Objectives

In this chapter, students will learn the following:

· The four distinctive features of melody

· Scale systems in Western Music

· Scale-like systems in non-Western musics

· An introduction to chords and harmonization in Western and non-Western musics

Chapter Overview

Pitch is the element of music determined by its frequency. Tones may have either determinate or indeterminate pitch. One melody may be distinguished from another by its basic features such as range, direction, character, and contour.

Each musical culture has its own pitch system in which an octave is divided into a set number of pitches and organized into pitch systems including the Western scales and similar systems unique to other musical cultures. Each culture also has its process for modulation, ornamentation, etc.

A brief introduction to the relation of pitch to chords and harmony with both Western and non-Western systems concludes the chapter.

Chapter 4 Part 1: The Informative Contents

1. Define the following terms:

Key Terms

Definitions, Explanations, or Comments

Interval

Scale

Octave

Range

Melody

Major Scale

Key

Pentatonic scale

Minor scales

Tonic

Blues scale

Modulation

Microtones

Ornamentation

Articulation

Legato

Staccato

Mode

Chord

Harmony

Harmonization

Chord progression

Arpeggio

Chapter 4 Journal

Part 2: The Textbook Online Music Illustrations and the Annenberg Video Exploring the World of Music – 6. Melody

Listen to all of the Online Musical Illustrations for Chapter 4. Click on the link below to access our textbook website for the Musical Illustrations.

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073526649/student_view0/musical_illustrations.htmlLinks to an external site.

These 11 Musical Illustrations will help you to better understand many of the terms above and enhance your critical listening skills.

Read the chapter and listen to the Illustrations as they come up in the chapter.

Repeated listening is a must as you begin to notice what to listen for in each Illustration.

Links to an external site. For question #2 below, view and respond to this excellent video from Annenberg Media – the topic (most appropriate for Chapter 4) is (6. Melody).

Exploring the World of Music Links to an external site.

http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=1242Links to an external site.

Once there, scroll down to “6. Melody” and click on the VOD box to start the video.

2. Be sure to write down anything that is new to you or is now clarified, (better understood). List your observations and comments.

Chapter 4 Music Journal

Part 3: Reflections

What, in this chapter, was new to me?

What, in this chapter, would I like to know more about?

Listen to all of the music examples and the online Musical Illustrations from Chapter 4 and in the Annenberg video. Which of these did you enjoy the most? Why?

Of the musical examples and the online Musical Illustrations in this chapter, and the music from the Annenberg video, which did you find to be challenging to listen to? Why?

Other thoughts or comments about Chapter 4, the online Musical Illustrations, and the Annenberg video on Melody.

Additional sources to consider for Chapter 4:

Hopi/Pueblo Eagle Dance performances: historic footage and Native American Dance Theater concert footage.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QO2g9tgWjbULinks to an external site. https://canvas.seattlecentral.edu/images/play_overlay.png

This website provides details on the physics of music; many of the sources are constructed to answer non-specialist questions about music acoustics. Especially interesting are the discussions on harmonic singing and the physics of the didjeridu. From the University of New South Wales. http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/music/Links to an external site.

A website for learning about the fundamentals of music. Includes explanatory material, tutorials, exercises, articles, and references. Established in 1997 by José Rodríguez Alvira; includes drills in English and Spanish. http://www.teoria.com/Links to an external site.

CHAPTER FIVE – HOW MUSIC WORKS, PART III: Dynamics, timbre, and instruments

Complete the following and save it in WORD (.docx).

Chapter 5 Music Journal Assignment

Your Name

Our Chapter 5 Objectives

In this chapter, you will learn the following:

· The element of dynamics, having to do with the relative loudness and softness of tones

· The element of timbre, which relates to the sound quality or “tone quality” of a sound

· Musical instruments, the actual material objects (including the human body) responsible for generating the tones we hear in music and their classification through the Sachs-Hornbostel system

Chapter Overview

Dynamic ranges (the levels of volume) in music may cover a spectrum from silence to deafening loudness. Such dynamic contrast is an important aspect of music with varying dynamic ranges found in different styles and types of music.

Describing differences in timbre is challenging because the available English language vocabulary is highly subjective. Music borrows words from other disciplines to describe the different qualities of sound. Despite the challenges inherent in describing timbre, doing so is important in distinguishing between music traditions, styles, instruments, and performers. Technically, timbre is a product of relationships between the partials that constitute musical tones.

One good way to start to identify the different timbres we hear in sound is to think of them as different colors. Think of a color that comes to mind when hearing the Biwa from Japan, the color you would give to the timbre of the Balafon from West Africa, the color of the Trumpet played by Miles Davis with his Harmon mute inserted without the stem inside of it, or the color that comes to mind when you hear the Aboriginal Australian instrument called the didjeridu. Each will have its own unique hue.

It is also good to think in terms of light or dark shades which help describe these tone quality (timbre) descriptions. The brightness of a flute being played up in a high range as compared to that same flute playing the lower to lowest pitches (on a regular concert flute down to a “C” or with the B foot extension, a low “B”). When these lower notes are sounding that same flute has a much darker and earthy quality of sound or timbre.

Instruments are divided into five classifications by the Sachs-Hornbostel classification system: chordophones, aerophones, membranophones, idiophones and electronophones. Each culture, however, has its own specific system of classifying instruments used in within the musics of that culture.

Dynamics

The dynamics in music refers to the how loud or soft different tones in music are. Gradations along the continuum of dynamics are generally referred to as very soft, soft, medium, loud, very loud or by a set of Italian musicals (such as piano, mezzo piano, etc) If the dynamic level gradually changes from softer to louder, the volume is said to crescendo. If the dynamic level gradually changes from louder to softer, the volume is said to decrescendo.

Chapter 5 Music Journal – Part 1: The Informative Contents

1. Define the following terms:

Key Terms

Definitions or Explanations or comments

Decrescendo

Crescendo

Acoustic (as in acoustic instrument)

Dynamic range

Ensembles

Harmonics

Didjeridu

Music instrument

Instrumentation

Hornbostel-Sachs classification system

Aerophones

Membranophones

Idiophones

Electronophones

Chordophones

Drumset

Multitrack recording

Digital sampling

Overdubbing

Chapter 5 Journal – Part 2: Online Music Illustrations and the Annenberg Video

Listen to all of the Online Musical Illustrations for Chapter 5. These 9 Musical Illustrations (Numbers 12-20) will help you to better understand many of the terms above and enhance your critical listening skills. Read the chapter and listen to the Illustrations as they come up in the chapter. Repeated listening is a must as you begin to notice what to listen for in each Illustration.

Textbook Musical Illustrations (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073526649/student_view0/musical_illustrations.html (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

2. Complete the Chart below in response to the above listening example – Chapter 5 Musical Illustration Number 16 – Distinctive timbres of several world music Instruments

Time

Instrument

Describe the Timbre

Possible Instrument Classification (Idiophone, Chordophone, Aerophone, Membranophone, Electrophone)

0:00-0:06

Indonesian Anklang

0:07-0:18

Mexican guitarron

0:19-0:26

Ugandan mandinda

(xylophone)

0:27-0:37

Native American powwow drum

0:38-0:48

Javanese Gong

0:49-0:53

Japanese sho (mouth organ)

0:54-0:59

West African axatse (rattle)

1:00-1:07

Appalachian dulcimer

1:08-1:19

Balinese suling (bamboo flute)

1:20-1:24

Andean siku

(panpipes)

3. View and respond to this excellent video from Annenberg Media – the topic (most appropriate for Chapter 5) is (7. Timbre: The Color of Music).

What was new to you here? What did you learn or discover in this video?

7. Timbre: The Color of Music (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

http://www.learner.org/resources/series105.html?pop=yes&pid=1243#Links to an external site.

The tone color of music — or “timbre,” as we call it in the Western tradition — is influenced by both technical and aesthetic factors. This program examines the creation and effects of timbre in jazz and Indian, West African, Irish, Bosnian, Indonesian gamelan, and Japanese musics.

Chapter 5 Music Journal – Part 3: Reflections

What, in this chapter, was new to me?

What, in this chapter, would I like to know more about?

Additional information and a recommendation:

Playing the Didjeridu

The didjeridu is known by many names in Australia including didgeridoo, didjeridu, digeridoo, yidaki, and a wide number of tribal names. In this lesson, the instrument name will be the one used by the author, instrument maker, or performer cited. The following table shows some of the names used for this instrument among Aboriginal peoples in Australia:

Aboriginal Tribe

Australian Region

Didgeridoo Name

Anindilyakwa

Groote Eylandt

ngarrriralkpwina

Arrernte

Alice Springs

ilpirra

Djinang

Arnhem Land

yirtakki

Gagudju

Kakadu

garnbak

Gupapuygu

Arnhem Land

yiraka

Iwaidja

Cobourg Peninsula

wuyimba

Jawoyn

Katherine

artawirr

Lardil

Mornington Island

djibolu

Mayali

Alligator River

martba

Ngarluma

Roebourne

kurmur

Nyul Nyul

Kimberley

ngaribi

Pintupi

Central Australia

paampu

Warray

Adelaide River

bambu

Traditionally, the didjeridu is constructed from a long branch that has been hollowed out by termites. The bark is removed, the outside of the branch smoothed by a blade or sanding, and the inside cleaned to remove debris. Finally, designs are painted in ochre (traditional designs) or various modern paints. The narrower end is coated with beeswax to form a comfortable mouthpiece. The pitches are limited to the fundamental and very few partials based on the length of the instrument. Some contemporary makers, however, have designed chromatic didgeridoos from ballistic plastics through inserting a smaller tube to serve as a slide much like the orchestral trombone. Such chromatic instruments are often used by studio players who need a range of pitches to accompany different songs without the need for carrying many didgeridoos into the studio.

The player blows into the didjeridu using a loose buzzing of the lips. Placement on the lips is determined by individual preference or ease of tone production, but numerous players place the instrument toward one side of the mouth. Different effects are created by voicing sounds in the throat and by manipulating the relationship between the fundamental and its harmonics in a variety of ways.

A beginning player may create basic effects through using the tongue to change the size of the air chamber within the mouth, varying intensity or breath or simply voicing the vowel sounds through the instrument much as would a ventriloquist. Lip tension may make some changes in the timbre and pitch.

Throat Singing (Harmonic Overtone Singing—“Multiphonic”) from Mongolia and Tuva

· Each pitch produced by a voice or an instrument does not consist of a single sound.

· What is actually produced is a fundamental tone—the tone our ear perceives as the basic pitch of the sound, and a series of harmonics (also called overtones).

· Khoomii means “throat singing”

· The name derives from an Inner Asian word for “throat.”

· By manipulating the mouth cavity and the position of the tongue, the singer causes one additional partial (harmonic or overtone) to be heard above the fundamental.

· Some singers can sound a third partial (Harmonic or overtone) at the same time.

· Kargyraa (car-gee-RAH”) is a type of khoomii that has a fundamental sung in a low register with a husky vocal quality (timbre).

· Sometimes the Kargyraa style can have a text (words) that the singer sings.

· The word Kargyraa is an onomatopoeic word for wheezing or speaking in a hoarse or husky voice.

· Another common style of throat singing is Sygyt (“SUH-gut”)—this has a higher pitched fundamental than Kargyraa.

· Sygyt produces clear harmonics that sound like whistling

Students are encouraged to borrow, rent, or purchase the film Genghis Bluesfeaturing the late Paul Pena and the Tuvan great Kongar-ol Ondar. This film is amazing on many levels—human, cultural, and musical—both indigenous and hybrid. Further, watching this film could stimulate topic ideas for your Final Assignment (Research Paper).

http://www.genghisblues.com/ (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

CHAPTER SIX—HOW MUSIC WORKS, PART IV: Texture and Form

Complete the following and save it in WORD (.docx).

Chapter 6 Music Journal

Your Name

Our Chapter 6 Objectives

Objectives

In this chapter, you will learn the following:

· How texture defines relationships between parts in musical works

· Texture may be Single-line, multiple-part, or distinctive (interlocking, call-and-response, etc.)

· Form may be through-composed or feature repetition, patterning, or organized into distinctive sections.

· Techniques for determining texture and form in music.

Chapter Overview

Texture is the element of music that accounts for relationships between different parts in a musical work, while Form is the element that accounts for how music works are organized.

Music can have a variety of different textures. Think of what it is like when you pick up and hold one single sheet of paper between your fingers. Compare that to holding 2, 3, 4, or 5 sheets of paper between your fingers. You can easily feel the difference in textures—one sheet is thin and light in weight; while the two or more sheets feel more dense and weighted. Music shares this textural characteristic.

Monophonic texture is when the music only has one note sounding at a time – this is common in most forms of Chant. (one single sheet of paper)

Polyphonic texture is when the music has two or more notes sounding at a time – this is the texture we hear in most of the music we experience. (two or more sheets of paper)

There are different types of Polyphonic texture to consider such as the simple melody on top with chords underneath – Homophonic Texture; or something called Heterophonic Texture – where the music features a single melody (like monophonic texture), yet varied versions of that melody are performed simultaneously; or multiple part textures which can feature two or more different melodies being sung or played at the same time – known as Counterpoint or Contrapuntal Texture. Also, distinctive textures such as interlocking and call-and-response are also found in world musics.

The Form of a musical work may be through-composed (the music continually evolves with new material being presented in each section—nothing is repeated—each new section brings fresh musical material) or may be strophic (verse-chorus) featuring repetition, patterning, and sectional organization. This chapter highlights ostinato-based forms, cyclic forms and forms with contrasting formal sections (verse-chorus, for example.)

Chapter 6 Music Journal – Part 1: The Informative Contents

1. Define the following terms:

Key Terms

Definitions or Explanations or comments

Texture

Form

Single-line texture

Monophonic

Polyphonic

Heterophony

Unison

Drone

Harmonized texture

Multiple-melody texture

Interlocking

Call-and-response

Ostinato

Layered ostinatos

12-bar blues (form)

Cycle (in a cyclic musical form)

Verse-chorus form

Chapter 6 Journal – Part 2: Listening and Analysis

Twelve Bar Blues: “A Funny Way of Asking,” CD1-19

2. Listen to and read about “A Funny Way of Asking” on pages 80-81. Use the following chart (based on Figure 6.3) to write brief notes in the chart below describing the contrasting musical features, including tempo, dynamics, rhythm, melodic contour, and timbre, which distinguish one cycle from the next.

Cycles

Description/comments

Cycle 1

(0:00-0:20)

Saxophone solo

Cycle 2

(0:21-0:40)

Vocals (verse 1)

Cycle 3

(0:41-1:00)

Vocals (verse 2)

Cycle 4

(1:01-1:21)

Saxophone solo)

Single-Line (Monophonic) Textures

3. Listen to and write down anything you notice in the following beautiful chant Alleluia Vidimus Stellam from the Roman Catholic Church during the Middle Ages:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ApX4DJvPpELinks to an external site. https://canvas.seattlecentral.edu/images/play_overlay.png

Becoming Familiar with Multiple-Part (Polyphonic) Textures (Counterpoint)

The simplest polyphonic texture is a melody accompanied by a drone. CD ex. # 1-16 (“Amazing Grace”) is an example of this texture.

Harmonized texture may take several forms. Notes of different pitch may occur together to form chords, often with each note of the melody serving as the basis for a chord, such as is heard in CD ex. # 1-11. Also, a single line of melody may be supported by a chordal accompaniment, such as occurs in CD ex. # 1-27.

Multiple-melody texture occurs when two or more essentially separate melodic lines are performed simultaneously as may be heard in CD2-3, featuring an excerpt of Zimbabwean popular music, and in selected works of Western composers such as Bach, Handel, and Palestrina.

4. Click the link below of the amazing Cantata No. 140 by Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750). The cantata is centered on a primary melody – heard in the 1st, 4th, and 7th (final) movements.

To prepare your response to question 4 below, start by listening to the 7th (final) movement of the Cantata No. 140 (the 24:24 mark) – here the Chorale melody is sung without counterpoint by the whole choir in a simple homophonic texture.

Cantata No. 140 Johann Sebastian Bach (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. https://canvas.seattlecentral.edu/images/play_overlay.png

Next, go the beginning of the 4th Movement (the 13:27 mark). That famous 7th movement Chorale melody will come back here being sung by the tenors – and at the same time you will hear a brand new melody (which begins the movement) being played on the orchestral instruments. Notice how the two different melodies fit perfectly with each other – Bach was amazing!

Write down anything you notice (music characteristics such as texture, timbre, melody, specific instruments you recognize, mood(s) conveyed, etc.) in these two movements from Cantata No. 140. This is just a brief look into the greatness of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750).

Becoming Familiar with Forms with Contrasting Sections

Jewish Klezmer Music

Klezmer, a now-international Jewish style if dance music that originated in Eastern Europe, often features contrasting sections in free rhythm and metered rhythm. This genre is believed to have originated around the 15th century with secular musicians called kleyzmorim with a repertoire of dance songs for weddings and other celebrations. Originally, the term klezmer referred to the instruments, then to the musicians, and, in the early 20th century, to the genre.

Melodies in klezmer music are expressive and imitate the human voice with various techniques imitating sobs, laughing, and more. Most often, the lyrics and song titles are in Yiddish. Many of the dances and melodic forms are similar to eastern European traditional musics, especially those of Romania and Bulgaria. Some of the better known late 20th century klezmer ensembles in the United States are the Klezmer Conservatory Band, The Klezmorim, and the Klezmatics. The sounds of klezmer may also be heard in western art music by Bernstein and Copland, among others.

5. Listen to, view, and write down what you notice in these two examples of this amazing Klezmer music!

Budapest Klezmer Band – Yidl Mit´n Fidl Links to an external site. https://canvas.seattlecentral.edu/images/play_overlay.png

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dxAEwZPHhscLinks to an external site.

Chapter 6 Journal – Part 3: Reflections

What, in this chapter, was new to me?

What, in this chapter, would I like to know more about?

Of the musical examples in this chapter, which did I enjoy the most? Why?

Of the musical examples in this chapter, which did I enjoy the least? Why?

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