Off-Label Drugs in Pediatrics Discussion

Off-Label Drugs in Pediatrics Discussion
This is just a discussion. I will upload an example to use as a guide. Only 550 words needed. Added extra page due to discussion sometimes go over 550 words. Children deal with variety of health issues similar to adults, but they also have issues that are more prevalent within their population. One issue that significantly impacts children is the prescription of drugs for off-label use. Consider the case of Rebecca Riley. When she was two years old, Riley was diagnosed with ADHD, and by age three, she was diagnosed with bipolar disorder. In the span of two years, Riley’s doctor prescribed four drugs off-label: Clonidine, Depakote, Zyprexa, and Seroquel. Riley’s doctor also approved 13 increases in drug dosages. Then, at age four, Riley died from pneumonia combined with a toxic level of prescription drugs (Lambert, 2010). Cases such as this have brought attention to the off-label use of drugs in pediatric patients, as well as the importance of monitoring patient reactions to prescribed drugs and evaluating the effects of drug-drug interactions. As an advanced practice nurse, how do you determine the appropriate use of off-label drugs in pediatrics? Are there certain drugs that should be avoided with pediatric patients? This week you examine the practice of prescribing off-label drugs to children. You also explore strategies for making off-label drug use safer for children from infancy to adolescence as it is essential that you are prepared to make drug–related decisions for pediatric patients in clinical settings.  Off-Label Drugs in Pediatrics Discussion Discussion: Off-Label Drug Use in Pediatrics

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The unapproved use of approved drugs, also called off-label use, with children is quite common. This is because pediatric dosage guidelines are typically unavailable since very few drugs have been specifically researched and tested with children. When treating children, prescribers often adjust dosages approved for adults to accommodate a child’s weight. However, children are not just “smaller” adults. Adults and children process and respond to drugs differently in their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Children even respond differently during stages from infancy to adolescence. This poses potential safety concerns when prescribing drugs to pediatric patients. As an advanced practice nurse, you have to be aware of safety implications of the off-label use of drugs with this patient group. To prepare: • Review the Panther et al (2017) and Corney, Lebel, Bailey, and Bussieres (2015) articles in the Learning Resources. Reflect on situations in which children should be prescribed drugs for off-label use. • Think about strategies to make the off-label use and dosage of drugs safer for children from infancy to adolescence. Consider specific off-label drugs that you think require extra care and attention when used in pediatrics. With these thoughts in mind: By Day 3 Post an explanation of circumstances under which children should be prescribed drugs for off-label use. Then, describe strategies to make the off-label use and dosage of drugs safer for children from infancy to adolescence. Include descriptions and names of off-label drugs that require extra care and attention when used in pediatrics. Off-Label Drugs in Pediatrics Discussion

 
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Assignment 1: The Annotated Bibliography

Assignment 1: The Annotated Bibliography

Instructions

Assignment 1: The Annotated Bibliography
Objective: Assess sources for your research for your final presentation (for credibility, reliability, and relevance) and list references in proper APA format
Assignment Instructions: The Research Project/Presentation for this class is divided into three major Assignments, 1) annotated bibliography, 2) outline and 3) final presentation. The first part is the annotated bibliography. An annotation is a summary and evaluation, and your annotated bibliography will include a summary and evaluation of some of the sources (or references) you will use for your presentation.Assignment 1: The Annotated Bibliography

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To prepare for this assignment, I recommend that you do the following:

  • Read these directions carefully.
  • Review the sample annotated bibliography provided to you below.
  • Message me using Classroom Support with any questions!

The reason the annotated bibliography is included as part of the research project is that writing an annotated bibliography is important in that it provides excellent preparation for the final presentation. One of the issues regarding any type of research, especially in chemistry, is the credibility of the sources used, particularly those obtained from various websites. By forcing you to evaluate each of your potential sources carefully, the annotated bibliography helps you determine if in fact the source you chose is credible and helps you determine how relevant it is to your topic and understand the topic better which will help you develop your presentation.
For this project, you will assess three sources to include:
1) a complete citation for each source,
2) a summary of each source, and
3) an evaluation of each source.
Three sources are required for this assignment (i.e., you are to write an annotation for each source). However, you must use five or more sources in your final presentation.Assignment 1: The Annotated Bibliography
Use this TEMPLATE to summarize and evaluate each of your three sources.

  1. Citation:

Written in APA reference list format. For more help with formatting, see APA handout.

  1. Summary:

What is the purpose of the source, review article, original research? What topics are covered? This section is generally 4-6 sentences that summarize the author’s main point. For more help, see this link on paraphrasing sources.

  1. Evaluation:

After summarizing the article (or research paper or book), it is necessary to evaluate it and state where you found it – its source (e.g., journal, website, etc.). Briefly answer the following questions in 4-6 sentences:
What is the format or type of source (e.g., peer-reviewed journal paper, website, book)? How reliable is the information in the article, and how credible is the source (e.g., website’s sponsoring organization, journal or book publisher) and the author(s)?
For more help, see this handout on evaluating resources.
Additional Resources:

  • Sample Annotated Bibliography
  • Also, please see the resources below at The Owl at Purdue site for more information on how to write an annotated bibliography as well as other pages on the site to assist you with the other parts of the research paper:

Assignment 1: The Annotated Bibliography

 
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Hess Law Report Lab

Hess’ Law

Peter Jeschofnig, Ph.D.

Version 42-0158-00-01

Review the safety materials and wear goggles when

working with chemicals. Read the entire exercise

before you begin. Take time to organize the materials

you will need and set aside a safe work space in

which to complete the exercise.

Experiment Summary:

Students will have the opportunity to measure

temperature changes taking place in a calorimeter

during neutralization reactions and use the

measurements to calculate enthalpy of reaction.

They will illustrate the validity of Hazy’ Law by

comparing the values of enthalpy of two chemical

reactions.

Objectives

To measure temperature changes taking place in a calorimeter during neutralization reactions

and use the measurements to calculate enthalpy of reaction.

To compare the enthalpy of two chemical reactions and use these measured values to illustrate

the validity of Hess’ Law.

Materials

Materials From: Label or

Box/Bag: Qty Item Description:

Student Provides Distilled water

Watch

Coffee cups

Paper towels

From LabPaq 1 Thermometer – Digital

1 Goggles-Safety

4 Cup, Styrofoam, 8 oz

1 Cylinder-25-mL

From Experiment Bag

Hess’ Law 2 Ammonia , NH3 (comes as aqueous

ammonia, NH4OH), – 2 M – 10 mL

2 Ammonium chloride, NH4Cl – 2M – 10mL

2 Hydrochloric acid, HCl – 2 M – 20 mL

2 Pipet, Long Thin Stem

2 Sodium hydroxide, NaOH – 2M – 20 mL

Note: The packaging and/or materials in this LabPaq may differ slightly from that which is listed

above. For an exact listing of materials, refer to the Contents List form included in the LabPaq.

Discussion and Review

Thermochemistry is the study of the heat energy involved in chemical reactions and changes of physical state. Nearly all chemical reactions involve the release or absorption of heat, a form of energy. The burning of any fuel such as gasoline, coal, or wood is an example of a heat-releasing reaction. Heat energy is called thermal energy, and it is always spontaneously transferred from hotter to colder matter.

The First Law of Thermodynamics is the Law of Energy Conservation. It states that the total energy of the universe must remain constant. Therefore, all energy transferred between a system and its surroundings must be accounted for as heat or work.

The standard S.I. unit for heat energy is the joule, J. It takes 4.184 joules, the equivalent of 1

calorie, to raise the temperature of one gram of water by 1° C. The kilojoule, kJ, is commonly used in many applications: 1000 joule = 1 kilojoule.

When a chemical reaction takes place in a stable environment where the temperature and

pressure remain constant, the system defined by the reactants and products either produces or

releases heat energy.

If the reacting system releases heat energy to its surroundings, a concurrent increase in

surroundings temperature is observed, and the reaction is exothermic

If the system absorbs heat energy from its surroundings, a decrease in the surroundings

temperature is observed, and the reaction is endothermic.

A measure of the amount of heat given off or absorbed in any chemical reaction is called the

enthalpy change or heat of reaction, and is given the symbol H.

When thermodynamic measurements are carried out at standard-state conditions where the

pressure is constant at 1 atm and the temperature is constant at 25oC, the reaction enthalpy is

designated as the standard enthalpy change or Δ. It is important to have standardized values because the enthalpy of a reaction can vary with different reaction conditions.

The following reaction for the formation of water from its constituents is exothermic:

H2(g) + ½ O2(g) à H2O(l); ΔH °f = -286 kJ

For every mole of H2O (l) formed at standard-state conditions, 286 kilojoules of heat energy are

released. When the standard enthalpy change of reaction describes the formation of 1 mol of

compound directly from its elements in their standard states as in this example, the value of ΔH of is called the standard heat of formation.

To determine the enthalpy change for a given reaction (ΔH°rxn), the summation of the heats of

formation (ΔH° f ) for the reactants are subtracted from the summation of the heats of formation ( ΔH ° f ) for the products.

ΔH° rxn = [n ΔH°f (products)] – [n ΔH°f (reactants)]

Tables containing the standard heats of formation for a number of compounds are available in the appendices of any general chemistry textbook.

Hess’s Law states that if a reaction is the sum of two or more other reactions, the ΔH for the

overall process must be the sum of the ΔH values of the constituent reactions.

Enthalpy change (ΔH) is independent of the path that a reaction follows to move from reactants

to products. It only depends on the relative energy difference between the reactant and product

molecules at constant pressure. Enthalpy change is referred to as a state function due to its

independent of pathway. Since the enthalpy of a substance is not commonly determined, the

change in enthalpy when reactants are converted to products is often used to describe a chemical

or physical process.

The thermal energy absorbed or produced by a chemical process reflects a difference between

the enthalpy between the reactants and products (ΔH). For example, in the decomposition of

liquid water into its component elements, H2 (g) and O2 (g), there are two successive changes.

First, the liquid water is vaporized. Second, the water vapor decomposes into its constituent

elements shown below. The ΔH value for this overall process can be determined by adding the

ΔH values from the equations for each step as shown below.

(1) H2O (l) àH2O (g); ΔH 1 = +44 kJ

(2) H2O (g) àH2 (g) + ½ O2 (g); ΔH 2 = +242 kJ

_______________________________________________________________

(1) + (2) H2O (l) àH2 (g) + ½ O2 (g); ΔHnet = +286 kJ

In order to determine ΔH for the reaction NH3 + HCl àNH4Cl in this experiment, ΔH rxn for the

following two reactions will be measured:

1. NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) àH2O (l) + NaCl (aq)

2. NaOH (aq) + NH4Cl (aq) àNH3 + NaCl + H2O (l)

Comparison of the calculated results for different parts of the experiment will verify the

generalization known as Hess’s Law of Constant Heat Summation. In this case the target reaction NH3 + HCl àNH4Cl can also be performed directly and the results compared to reactions 1 and 2.

A Styrofoam coffee cup calorimeter will be used to measure the amount of heat energy evolved

or absorbed during the chemical reactions of this experiment. A digital thermometer is used to

measure the change in temperature between the final and initial temperatures of the solutions.

Unfortunately, it is impossible to have perfect insulation and some of the heat energy will be lost to the surroundings, including to the material from which the calorimeter is constructed.

Calibrating the calorimeter before using it to make measurements on an unknown system usually solves the problem of heat losses. A known amount of heat energy from a known process is released into the calorimeter system, and the temperature change is measured. A simple calculation is done to determine the amount of heat energy loss, called the heat capacity of the calorimeter or calorimeter constant. For this experiment it assumed that the heat capacity of the calorimeter is insignificant and it is ignored.

Another practical problem is that heat energy exchanges do not occur instantaneously; i.e., it takes time for energy to move from a hot object to a cold one. An acceptable solution to this problem is to obtain a cooling curve for the heat energy exchange in question and then extrapolate the data back to the exact time that the exchange began.

Below is a sample graph from hypothetical data. Notice that at the time of combining the

two solutions, their starting temperature is 20oC. Since the starting temperatures are at room

temperature no initial temperature adjustment is needed. From 0 to 40 seconds the temperature

rises rapidly to 34.2oC. The temperature then drops gradually 31.1oC and will continue to drop.

Usually recording the temperature in 20-20 second intervals for 5 minutes is enough to provide a

good cooling curve. Extrapolation of these data backward in time determines what the temperature

at the time of mixing would have been if the temperature of the reaction had been instantaneous

and the calorimeter had warmed instantaneously. In this example, the temperature at the time

of mixing determined by extrapolation is 34.3oC.

Calculations: The equation used to calculate heat gained or lost is:

qsolution = (mass of solution) x (specific heat) x ΔT

Density = 1.02 g/mL for all solutions in this experiment;

Specific Heat = 4.184 J

ΔT = Final temperature – Initial temperature

A small amount of heat is lost to the surroundings which in this case is the calorimeter. This

heat loss can be accounted for by using a calorimeter constant, c, which can be determined

experimentally. However, the amount of heat lost to the calorimeter is so insignificant that it is

often left off, or simply assumed to be 1 J* ΔT. (q cal = c x ΔT).

If a correction was to be made for the heat absorbed by the calorimeter, the heat of the reaction,

qrxn , could be determined by taking the negative of the heat gained by the solution, qsoln, plus that

gained by the calorimeter, qcal:

qrxn = -(qsoln + qcal)

Once the total thermal energy transfer is known, the enthalpy of reaction can be determined

using the following equation:

ΔH = qrxn /moles NaOH or HCl

Moles of NaOH or HCl can be determined from the equation: M = moles/L

10 mL = 0.01L; 2M = moles/0.01L = 0.02 moles

Exercise 1: Hess’ Law

Procedure

Part 1: Reaction: HCl & NaOH → NaCl + H2O

1. Before beginning, set up data tables similar to the Data Tables 1 & 2 in the Lab Report Assistant

section.

2. Construct a calorimeter from 2 Styrofoam cups: Trim the lip of one cup and use that cup as

the top of the calorimeter. Make a small hole in the top so a thermometer can be inserted, as

shown below. Be careful when inserting the thermometer into the calorimeter since it has a

pointed tip that could puncture the lower cup if inserted too forcefully. Place the calorimeter

assembly into an empty coffee cup to help prevent it from tipping over.

Figure 2:

3. Use a graduated cylinder to accurately measure 10 mL of 2M HCl. Use an empty thin-stem

pipet to remove or add drops of HCl so that the meniscus level is on the 10 mL mark. Pour the

10 mL HCl into the Styrofoam calorimeter. Rinse the thin-step pipet according to this manual’s

instructions on Use, Disposal, and Cleaning of Common Materials.

4. Rinse and dry the graduated cylinder and accurately measure 10 mL of 2M NaOH using the

same technique in step 2 above. Pour the 10 mL NaOH into another Styrofoam cup and place

the cup into a second empty coffee cup to prevent it from tipping over.

5. Turn on the digital thermometer and place it into the HCl solution. Wait 5 minutes and record

the temperature of the solution in Data Table 1.

6. Remove the thermometer, rinse the tip with distilled water, dry it with a paper towel and

place it into the NaOH solution. Wait 5 minutes and record the temperature of the solution

in Data Table 1. Remove the thermometer, rinse the tip with distilled water, and dry it with a

paper towel for future use.

7. Pour the contents of one Styrofoam cup into the second one, combining the two solutions.

Quickly place the Styrofoam lid on top of the cup containing the combined solutions and insert

the thermometer through the hole in the lid. Be careful when inserting the thermometer to

ensure its pointed tip does not puncture the lower Styrofoam cup.

8. Record the temperature every 20 seconds for 5 – 6 minutes and record in Data Table.

9. Graph the data points using an Excel spreadsheet; time in seconds on the x-axis and

temperature on the y-axis. The graph should look similar to the sample cooling curve below.

10. Place a ruler on the declining temperature portion of the curve and extrapolate to the 0-line.

Read the extrapolated temperature where the straight line intersects the 0-time line. This

temperature represents the final temperature of the mixture. Enter this temperature in Data

Table 1.

11. Dispose of the solution in the calorimeter by flushing it down the drain with water. Recall that

the solution results from a neutralization reaction and is simply salt water.

12. Rinse all equipment used in preparation for reaction 2. This includes the calorimeters,

graduated cylinders, pipets, etc.

Part 2: Reaction 2: NH4Cl + NaOH → NH3 + NaCl + H2O

1. Repeat the Procedures from Part 1, but using 10 mL of 2M NH4Cl and 10 mL of 2 mL of NaOH.

2. Dispose of the solution in the calorimeter by flushing it down the drain with water.

3. Rinse all equipment used in preparation for reaction 3. This includes the calorimeters,

graduated cylinders, pipets, etc

Part 3: Reaction: NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl

1. Repeat the Procedures from reaction 1, but using 10 mL of 2M NH3 and 10 mL of 2 mL of HCl.

2. Dispose of the solution in the calorimeter by flushing it down the drain with water.

3. Rinse all equipment used in preparation for future experiments. This includes the calorimeters,

graduated cylinders, pipets, etc.

Hess’ Law

Peter Jeschofnig, Ph.D.

Version 42-0158-00-01

Lab Report Assistant

This document is not meant to be a substitute for a formal laboratory report. The Lab Report

Assistant is simply a summary of the experiment’s questions, diagrams if needed, and data tables

that should be addressed in a formal lab report. The intent is to facilitate students’ writing of lab

reports by providing this information in an editable file which can be sent to an instructor.

Part 1: Reaction: HCl & NaOH → NaCl + H2O

Part 1: Reaction: HCI & NaOH  →  NaCI +H20

Data Table 1: Sample Data
InitialTemperature of HCl –oC 
InitialTemperature NaOH – oC 
Average InitialTemperature – oC 
Final Temperature of mixture (extrapolated) 
Change in Temperature of mixture, ΔT 
Data Table 2: Sample Data
Time after mixing- seconds Temperature – °C
20 
40 
60 
80 
100 
120 
140 
160 
180 
200 
220 
240 
260 
280 
300 

Part 2: Reaction 2: NH4Cl + NaOH → NH3 + NaCl + H2O

Data Table 3:
InitialTemperature of NaOH – oC 
InitialTemperature NHCl – oC 
Average InitialTemperature – oC 
Final Temperature of mixture (extrapolated) 
Change in Temperature of mixture, ΔT 
Data Table 4:
Time after mixing- seconds Temperature – °C
20 
40 
60 
80 
100 
120 
140 
160 
180 
200 
220 
240 
260 
280 
300 

Part 3: Reaction : NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl

Data Table 5:
InitialTemperature of HCl – oC 
InitialTemperature NH  – oC 
Average InitialTemperature –oC 
Final Temperature of mixture (extrapolated) 
Change in Temperature of mixture, ΔT 
Data Table 6:
Time after mixing- seconds Temperature – °C
20 
40 
60 
80 
100 
120 
140 
160 
180 
200 
220 
240 
260 
280 
300 

Questions

For A. through E. See the calculations for the Data Tables above.

A.      Using the data from your data tables calculate ΔT for all three reactions:

B.      Calculate the heat loss or gain of the three solution mixtures:

C. Use Hess’ Law and ΔH for the first two reactions:

NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) → H2O (l) + NaCl (aq)

NaOH (aq) + NH4Cl (aq) → NH3 + NaCl + H2O (l)

to determine ΔH for this reaction: NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl

D. Compare the results of step 3 above with the experimental results of the

NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl

E. Use the thermodynamic quantities given below to calculate the theoretical ΔH for this

reaction: NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl

ΔH°f for NH3 (aq) = – 80.29 kJ/mol

ΔH°f for HCl (aq) = – 167.2 kJ/mol

ΔH°f for NH4 (aq) = – 132.5 kJ/mol

ΔH°f for Cl- (aq) = – 167.2 kJ/mol

F. What was the ΔH value obtained for NH3 + HCl àNH4Cl from Hess’ Law method?

G. What was the ΔH value obtained for NH3 + HCl àNH4Cl experimentally?

H. What was the calculated ΔH value obtained for NH3 + HCl àNH4Cl using published

thermodynamic data?

What was the % error of the various methods used? (i.e. comparing the results of the results of Hess’ Law method and the experimental results to the calculated value?

J. Name three examples of the practical application for the use of ΔH values.

 
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Net Ionic Eqaution

Results

Part I: Changes in Reactant or Product Concentrations
A. Copper and Nickel Ions
Observed colors of the solutions:
Copper (II) IonsNickel (II) Ions
CuSO4(aq):clear, light blueNiCl2(aq):clear, light teal
[Cu(NH3)4]2+(aq):clear, dark blue[Ni(NH3)6]2+(aq):cloudy (precip), dark blue/green
After HCl addition:produced heat and formed water vaporAfter HCl addition:produced heat, water vapor, cleared the color, and removed the precipitate
a.) Explain your observations upon addition of NH3(aq) to the CuSO4 and NiCl2 solutions. Include balanced net ionic equations (2) and explain what happens in the reactions in terms of LeChâtelier’s principle as more NH3(aq) is added.b.) Explain your observations upon addition of HCl(aq) on the solutions. Include the balanced net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs. Explain which way the equilibria in (a) shift and why in terms of LeChatlier’s principle as HCl is added.c.) What initially forms as pale blue and pale green precipitates when NH3(aq) is added to [Cu(H2O)4]2+ and [Ni(H2O)6]2+ solutions, respectively? Why do these precipitates form?
B. Cobalt Ions
Color of original CoCl2 solution:Clear, see through red, no precipitate
Color after adding HCl(aq):Dark purple, clear, formed water vapor
Color after adding H2O:Cleared changes, returned to red, see through.
a.) Explain your observation upon addition of 12 M HCl(aq) to the original CoCl2 solution. Include a balanced net ionic equation and explain which way the equilibrium shifts as more HCl(aq) is added and why in terms of LeChâtelier’s principle.b.) Account for your observation when adding water to the [CoCl4]2- complex solution. Explain which way the equilibrium in (a) shifts as water is added and why in terms of LeChâtelier’s principle.
Part II: Equilibria Involving Sparingly Soluble Salts
Appearance of Na2CO3 Solution:Clear, no color
Appearance of AgNO3 Solution:Clear no color
Observed Changes on Mixing:bright yellow “lemon-aid” color, with a cloudy precip.

a.) Write the balanced net ionic equation for the equilibrium that is established upon mixing. Why does this equilibrium occur?

Observations upon addition of HNO3:1 drop cleared the solution, no color, no precipitate
a.) Account for your observations when adding HNO3(aq). Include the balanced net ionic equation and explain which way the equilibrium in (a) shifts and why in terms of Le Châtelier’s principle.b.) Which ions remain in the test tube after addition of HNO3(aq)?
Observations upon addition of HCl:Formed a solid and chunky precipitate, though not cloudy
a.) Write the balanced net ionic equation for the equilibrium that is established when HCl(aq) is added to the test tube. Why does this equilibrium occur?
Observations upon addition of NH3:Solution clears out, removing the cloudy precipitate
a.) Explain your observation when excess NH3(aq) is added to the test tube. Include a balanced net ionic equation and explain which way the equilibrium in (d) shifts as NH3 (aq) is added and why in terms of LeChâtelier’s principle.
Observations upon addition of HNO3:Remains clear, and colorless, produces a water vapor and heat.
a.) Account for your observations when adding HNO3(aq). Include a balanced net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs and explain which way the equilibrium in (e) shifts as HNO3(aq) is added and why in terms of Le Châtelier’s principle.b.) Which ions and/or solids are present in the test tube after the addition of HNO3(aq)?
Observations upon 2nd addition of NH3:No change was observed
a.) Explain your observation when excess NH3(aq) is added to the test tube. Include a balanced net ionic equation and explain which way the equilibrium in (d) shifts as NH3 (aq) is added and why in terms of LeChâtelier’s principle.
Observations upon addition of KI:Color changes to bright yellow “lemonade” color, with a cloudy precipitate
a.) Account for your observations when adding KI(aq). Include a balanced net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs and explain which way the equilibrium in (h) shifts as KI(aq) is added and why in terms of Le Châtelier’s principle.
Part III: Effect of Temperature on Equilibria
Temperature of cool CoCl2:24° C
Color of cool CoCl2 (before heating):Clear and medium red
Temperature of hot [CoCl4]2-:75° C
Color of hot [CoCl4]2- (after heating):Deep dark red, though still clear
a.) Is the reaction exothermic or endothermic? Explain your answer.

Discussion Questions

1. Based on your observations on Part I, what could be expected to happen if the solution of [Cu(NH3)4]2+ were diluted with water. Use a balanced net ionic equation to explain.

2. In the equilibrium, X3+(aq){yellow}+Y-(aq){colorless}↔[XY4]-(aq){red}, what would be indicated if heating the solution caused an intense dark red color and the solution turned yellow in an ice bath?

3. Consider the following equilibria occurring simultaneously:

Fe3+(aq){pale yellow}+SCN-(aq){colorless}↔[FeNCS]2+(aq){dark red}

Ag+(aq)+SCN-(aq)↔AgSCN(s)

2Fe3+(aq)+Sn2+(aq)↔ 2Fe2+(aq)+Sn4+(aq)

Would the color of the solution get darker or lighter if silver nitrate were added to the test tube? Explain why in terms of Le Châtelier’s Principle.

4. Would the color get darker or lighter if tin (II) chloride were added to the test tube? Explain why in terms of Le Châtelier’s Principle.

 
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Purifying Acetanilide By Recrystallization

Purifying Acetanilide by

Recrystallization

1. The solubility of benzoic acid in water is 6.80 g per 100 mL at 100°C and 0.34 g per 100 mL at 25°C.

Show your calculations for the questions below.

(a) Calculate the minimum volume of water needed to dissolve 1.00 g of benzoic acid at 100°C.

(b) Calculate the maximum theoretical percent recovery from the recrystallization of 1.00 g of benzoic

acid from 15 mL of water, assuming the solution is filtered at 25°C.

2. The solubility of acetanilide in your recrystallizing solvent is 5.0 mg per mL at 10°C. (10ºC is the

approximate temperature of an ice/water bath). Show your calculations for the questions below.

(a) Calculate the theoretical maximum percent recovery in this experiment, assuming a 15.0-mL

recrystallizing solution is filtered at 10°C.

(b) Calculate the percent recovery of the acetanilide produced in your experiment.

(c) How do your results compare to the theoretical maximum percent recovery? Explain any difference

you may have observed. Why is the theoretical maximum percent recovery (calculated in 2a above) not

necessarily applicable your experiment? Aside from technical or human error (such as spillage,

incomplete transfers, loss on the filter paper, loss due to excessive washing, etc.) or slight differences involume of solvent or temperature of the ice bath, what assumptions or estimations were made in this

calculation which may not apply to your results?

3. A student rushed through this experiment. Describe the effect that the following procedural changes

would have on the percent recovery of acetanilide; would the % recovery by higher, or lower? Briefly

explain the basis of each answer.

(a) Rather than adding 0.5-mL portions of boiling solvent to the acetanilide, the student added 5-mL

portions of boiling solvent.

(b) The student forgot to cool 5 mL of solvent in Part 4 and washed the crystals with room-temperature

solvent.

Separating Acids and Neutral Compounds by

Solvent Extraction

1. Based on the amounts of p-toluic acid and acetanilide you recovered, estimate the

composition of the original mixture, assuming that you lost equal amounts of each

compound. Show your calculations. Express the composition as percentages of each

component: For example “the original mixture was 30% p-toluic acid and 70%

acetanilide”.

2. What product would you obtain if you evaporated the water from the NaOH layer prior to

acidifying the layer?

3. Suppose that you used dichloromethane instead of diethyl ether as the nonpolar solvent in

this experiment. What changes in the procedure would you make in view of the fact that

dichloromethane is more dense than water?

4. Benzoic acid (C6H5—COOH) is a weak acid and naphthalene is neutral, neither acidic or

basic. Prepare a flowchart for the separation and recovery of benzoic acid and

naphthalene.

Benzoic Acid Naphthalene

solubility in water: poor solubility in water: poor

solubility in ether: good solubility in ether: good

5. After comparing the melting points of each of your compounds to their respective

literature values, comment on the purity of each compound. (You may skip this question if your

instructor did not have you acquire melting points).

O OH

1. Briefly describe the hazards you should be aware of when you work with:

(a) diethyl ether

(b) 3M HCl

2. Briefly explain or describe the following:

(a) How would you determine which layer is the aqueous layer after you add NaOH solution to

the ether solution of your compounds?

(c) What visible evidence(s) of reaction will you see when you acidify the NaOH extract with

HCl solution?

(d) In which layer would p-toluic acid be more soluble if p-toluic acid were added to a two-layer

mixture of diethyl ether and water?

13

Solvent Extraction, Pre-lab page 2

(e) How would the results differ if you added sodium p-toluate instead of p-toluic acid to the

two-layer mixture of diethyl ether and water?

4. How many milliliters of 3.0 M HCl would be required to neutralize 30. mL of 0.50 M

NaOH? (Show your work). (hint: this is a general chemistry question! Remember that the

acid HCl and the base NaOH react in a 1:1 molar ratio. The number of moles of acid need to

equal the number of moles of base to effect complete neutralization).

5. Briefly explain how you will isolate p-toluic acid after it is extracted it into NaOH solution.

6. Write the equation for the chemical reaction of the toluate ion that will occur when you

add HCl solution to the NaOH extract in part 3.

SN1 Reaction: A Kinetic study

Post-Laboratory Questions (attach your responses on a separate sheet)

1. From the experimental data, prepare a table of the following values. Record all calculated

results to the proper number of significant figures. Note that V and V¥ are the total volumes of

NaOH solution delivered; they are not burette readings (unless, of course, your initial buret

reading was 0.00 mL). Base your calculations on the actual value of V¥ that you measured in lab

not the theoretical value! Time, t, is the elapsed time in seconds (its OK to use minutes if you

prefer). Use Equation 10 to calculate the values of k.

t (sec) V (mL) V/V¥ (1 – V/V¥) ln(1 – V/V¥) k

2. Prepare a graph of ln(1 – V/V¥) versus time, t. Using a computer program or a graphing

calculator, determine the best straight line through your data points. (See the supplement to this

lab for detailed instructions on how to determine best fit if you are unfamiliar with this process).

This graph should be properly labeled and drawn to scale. Do the data support the SN1

mechanism? Briefly explain.

3. Calculate the value of k from the slope of the line from the graph in 2.

4. Using the values of k which you determined above (in question #1), calculate the average

value of k, and estimate its uncertainty. One way to estimate its uncertainty is to

(1) calculate an average value of k

(2) calculate the absolute value of the deviation of each value from the average value

(3) calculate the average of these deviations.

Prepare a table which shows the deviation for each datum, and report the average value of k and

the average deviation. It may be convenient for you to include these data in the table you prepare

for post-lab question #1, above.

Note: What you are doing here is a standard statistical way of measuring reproducibility.

Theoretically, the value of k should be the same for all trials. In practice, however, you almost

certainly will observe some variation in the calculated values of k. The average deviation is a

way of expressing in a single number how much variability you have in your data. Low average

deviations mean your numbers are all close together; high average deviation means you have a

lot of “noise” or “scatter” in your data.

12

Pre-Laboratory Assignment SN1 Reaction: A Kinetic Study

Name ________________________________________________________________

Note: you may wish to copy this pre-lab before you submit it. (The results of pre-lab question

#2 will be helpful for your lab calculations).

1. Describe briefly the hazards associated with the reaction mixture and the safety precautions

you must take when performing the experiment.

2. Assume that you use 1.00 mL of 2-chloro-2-methylpropane. Calculate the following

quantities. Be sure to show your calculations; you will NOT receive credit if work is not

shown!

a. the number of moles of 2-chloro-2-methylpropane used. The density of the liquid is

0.851 g/mL.

b. the number of moles of HCl produced by complete solvolysis of 1.00 mL of 2-chloro-2-

methylpropane.

13

SN1 Reaction: A Kinetic Study, Pre-lab page 2

c. the volume in milliliters of 0.350 M NaOH required to neutralize the HCl produced by

complete solvolysis of 1.00 mL of 2-chloro-2-methylpropane. (This is referred to as V¥ in your

lab manual).

d. the volume in milliliters of 0.350M NaOH required to neutralize the HCI produced when

solvolysis of 1.00 mL of 2-chloro-2-methylpropane is 50% complete. (This is referred to

as V50% in your lab manual; the volume of base consumed when the reaction is 50%

complete).

Note: you may wish to record the values of V¥ and V50% separately before you turn in your

pre-laboratory assignment; you will need these values during the experiment.

Studying SN1 Reactions:

Nucleophilic Substitution at

Saturated Carbon

Post-Laboratory Questions

1. When you compared 2-bromo-2-methylpropane and 2-chloro-2-methylpropane (in part

one), what were the relative rates of the two reactions?

2. Based on your answer to question 1, which is the better leaving group, Br- or Cl- ?

HBr is a stronger acid than HCl. Are these results consistent with the relative

basicities of these two ions? Explain your answer.

3. Which compound, 2-bromo-2-methylpropane or 2-bromopropane, reacted faster in

your SN1 experiment? How are the reactivities of 2-bromo-2-methylpropane and

2-bromopropane related to the stabilities of the carbocations produced as intermediates in

the reaction? Explain your answer.

4. Which of the two solvent mixtures, 40% 2-propanol or 60% 2-propanol, is more

polar? Explain your answer.

5. In which of the two solvent mixtures did 2-bromo-2-methylpropane react faster?

Account for your results in terms of the effect of solvent polarity on the rate-determining

step in this SN1 reaction.

6. Use your results to explain which variable — leaving group, alkyl structure, or solvent

polarity — has the greatest impact on the rate of an SN1 reaction. In other words, which

variable had the most pronounced effect on the observed times?

9

Pre-Laboratory Assignment Studying SN1 reactions

Name _________________________________________________________________

1. Why do tertiary alkyl halides typically undergo SN1 substitution reactions more rapidly

than do primary or secondary alkyl halides?

2. Show a complete and balanced reaction for the solvolysis of

2-bromo-2-methylpropane in water. Also show a complete and balanced reaction for the

solvolysis of 2-bromopropane in water. (It is NOT necessary to show intermediates or

mechanisms, just the overall reactions). Which of these reactions is kinetically favored?

3. How does the SN1 reaction in this experiment cause the acid/base indicator,

phenolphthalein, to change color? Briefly explain.

10

4. Why is it important that the volume of 0.5 M NaOH be measured exactly? What

would happen if you put different amounts of NaOH in the different reaction vessels,

what error would this cause in your results?

5. Which is the better leaving group, Cl-1 or Br-1 ? Briefly explain why one is better than

the other.

Extract caffeine from i tea

Post Laboratory Questions (attach your responses on a separate sheet)

1. Calculate the mass percent of caffeine in your instant tea sample.

2. On the average, people use one teaspoon (2.5 g) of instant tea to make an 8.0-oz glass of iced tea. The

average glass of iced tea contains 10. mg of caffeine per oz.

(a) Based on this information, calculate the mass percent of caffeine in a glass of iced tea.

(b) Are your experimental results consistent with these facts? Briefly explain.

(c) If not, explain why your experimental results may differ from these data.

7

Pre-Laboratory Assignment Isolating Caffeine from Tea

Name _________________________________________________________

1. Why should you use a fume hood when working with dichloromethane?

2. Why is gentle shaking necessary during the extraction of caffeine from tea?

3. Why is it important to not overheat the dichloromethane while extracting the caffeine?

4. During recrystallization, why should the 2-propanol be kept hot while dissolving the crude crystals?

Synthesize acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)

Post-Laboratory Questions (attach your responses on a separate sheet)

1. Calculate the % yield of aspirin in your experiment. Be sure to fully show your calculations

for theoretical yield and % yield; you will NOT receive credit if work is not shown!

2. a. Other than human error, impurities in the starting materials, or equipment

malfunctions, can you think of any reason why the aspirin might not be completely pure?

What steps could be taken to improve the purity of your product?

b. If you determined the melting point of the aspirin sample, comment on the purity of

your product.

3. Using your textbook or another appropriate reference, show a detailed mechanism for the

esterification reaction in this experiment.

Pre-Laboratory Questions Synthesis of Aspirin

Name _________________________________________________________________

1. Calculate the theoretical yield of aspirin, in grams, for this experiment, assuming

that you start with 2.0 grams of salicylic acid and 5.0 mL of acetic anhydride. The

density of acetic anhydride is 1.08 g/mL. You must show ALL of your calculations to

receive credit on this question and question #2. (You may want to make a copy of this

calculation and result before turning in the pre-lab; you will need this value for the

post-lab questions, also).

2. If 1.9 grams of aspirin were obtained in this experiment, what would be the percent

yield?

3. Write the equation for the reaction which occurs when acetic anhydride is mixed with

water. (please show structures or structural formulae in your response).

Oxidation of an Alcohol:

Oxidizing Methoxybenzyl Alcohol to

Methoxybenzaldehyde Using

Phase-Transfer Catalysis

Post-Laboratory Questions (attach your responses on a separate page)

1. Calculate the percent yield of your product. [Note: if the amount of methoxybenzyl alcohol

you used differs from the amount listed in the “Reagents and Properties” section of the lab, you

will have to re-calculate the theoretical yield, based on the amount of alcohol actually used].

Make certain to show your work for this calculation.

2. Calculate Rf values for methoxybenzyl alcohol and methoxybenzaldehyde, using the 20-min

spotting time. Why does the alcohol have a lower Rf value than the aldehyde?

Note: you should submit the TLC plates! They belong in the results section. Tape them onto a

sheet of paper and label them appropriately. If you worked with a partner, make a note if your

TLC plates are with your partner’s report.

3. The ethyl acetate layer was extracted with NaOH to remove any traces of methoxybenzoic

acid that may have been produced by over-oxidation of the alcohol.

a. Draw the structure for methoxybenzoic acid.

b. Show the balanced reaction of NaOH and methoxybenzoic acid.

c. If you wished to isolate and collect methoxybenzoic acid from the NaOH solution,

explain how this could be done. (hint: methoxybenzoic acid is not soluble in water).

4. Explain how TLC could be used to monitor the reduction of methoxybenzoic acid to

methoxybenzaldehyde acid using LiAlH4 as a reducing agent.

5. In this experiment, students often note that on the TLC plates, the spot for the standard

p-methoxybenzaldehyde has a very faint second spot with a very low Rf. You may have noticed

this on your own TLC plates – it is due to a contaminant in the benzaldehyde. The Rf of this spot

is lower than that of p-methoxybenzyl alcohol; what do you think this spot may be? (Hint: the

contaminant appears after p-methoxybenzaldehyde has been stored for a long period of time in

an oxygen atmosphere such as air; the contaminant is NOT observed if the

p-methoxybenzaldehyde is stored away from oxygen).

11

Pre-Laboratory Assignment Oxidizing Methoxybenzyl Alcohol

Name ___________________________________________________________________

1. What safety precautions must be observed when using

(a) ethyl acetate?

(b) dichloromethane?

2. Using the data in the Reagents and Properties table, calculate the theoretical yield of

methoxybenzaldehyde, assuming you start with 1.50 g of the alcohol. (Assume the alcohol is the

limiting reactant). Be sure to show your work; you will NOT receive credit if work is not

shown. You may wish to make a copy of this calculation to assist you with your post-lab

questions.

3. Explain why a phase-transfer catalyst is used when oxidizing methoxybenzyl alcohol using

NaOCl.

12

Pre-Laboratory Assignment Oxidizing Methoxybenzyl Alcohol

Name ___________________________________________________________________

4. Draw the structure of the expected organic product for each of the reactions shown below:

structures.png
 
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Two Lab Reports

I would like you to write two lab reports about two different experiments. I will upload you the instructions on how does the report have to be done. Also, I will upload you the experiment file ( this file will contain everything data, question and answers, purpose, etc..) I would like you to rewrite this answers I wrote on your own words. I will also upload you a sample for an old lab report. I want two pages for each experiment four in total. Thank you!

 
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lab 4

Reaction Order and Rate Laws

Michele Hopkins

General Chemistry II/ CHEM-182-DL1

Professor Amal Bassa

June 27, 2014

Introduction

This lab experiment studies the effects of dilution for a reaction, in order obtain the order of the reactants,

plus acquire the reaction’s rate law. This lab as well teaches the environmental factors that affect reaction rates by identifying zero, first, as well as second order.

Procedure

Part I:

Set up the data tables by calculating the initial concentrations after diluting with water

Part II: Varying the Concentration of 1.0 M HCl

1. I placed the 24-well plate at the top of a white piece of paper and drew three equally-thick,

black X signs beneath each of the lower three left wells. Then I moved the plate to where the

lower three left wells are above the X’s.

2. I than added distilled water 6 drops to well #D-2 and 8 drops to well #D-3( no water is added to well #D-1)

3. From the HCl bottle I carefully added 12 drops to well #1, 6 drops to well #2, and 4 drops to well #3

4. Into the top three left wells of the 24-well plate (A-1, A-2, A-3) I added 8 drops of Na2S2O3, sodium thiosulfate.

5. I labeled an empty pipet Na2S2O3 where I pinch the sides together.

6. I slightly tipped the 24-well plate forward so that the drops of Na2S2O3 puddle together at the bottom of the rim.

7. Inserted the pipet’s into the puddle and released the pressure and sucked all of the Na2S2O3 into the pipet.

8. I next grabbed the stopwatch and began timing.

9. Than I took the pipet of Na2S2O3 in my right hand and squeezed all of the contents from the bulb into

well #1 (immediately begin timing with stopwatch).

10. I observed well #1 while a reaction occured. (no longer see the X sign through the bottom of the well)

11. This was reapted for well #2 and well #3

Part III: Varying the Concentration of 0.30 Na2S2O3

Next I placed the 24-well plate at the top of a white piece of paper and drew three black X

signs beneath each of the lower three left wells. I then moved the plate to where the lower three

left wells are above the Xs. On my paper I labeled the well numbers 1, 2, and 3 underneath each of them.

1.From the distilled water bottle I carefully added 6 drops to well #2; b. 8 drops to well #3c (no water was

added to well #1)

2. From the Na2S2O3 bottle, I carefully added 12 drops to well #1; 6 drops to well #2; and 4 drops to well #3

3. Into each of the top three left wells of the 24-well plate I added 8 drops of HCl.

4. I than labeled the second empty pipet HCl.

5. Slightly tipped the 24-well plate forward so that the drops of Na2S2O3 puddle together along the bottom

rim.

6. I inserted the pipet’s into the puddle and release the pressure and sucked all of the HCl into the pipet.

7. I next grabbed the stopwatch and began timing.

8. I placed the pipet of HCl in my right hand and squeezed all of the contents from the bulb into well

#1 and begin timing with the stopwatch.

9. I observed well #1 while a reaction occured. (no longer see the X sign through the bottom of the well)

10. I repeated for well #2 and well #3

11. Immediately wash with liquid soap and thoroughly dry your well plate with paper towels and

cotton swabs to prevent precipitates from clinging to the bottom of the wells.

12. Lastly a second set of data was performed by repeating all of the above steps.

Reaction Order and Rate Laws

Peter Jeschofnig, Ph.D. Version 42-0195-00-01

Lab Report Assistant

This document is not meant to be a substitute for a formal laboratory report. The Lab Report Assistant is simply a summary of the experiment’s questions, diagrams if needed, and data tables that should be addressed in a formal lab report. The intent is to facilitate students’ writing of lab reports by providing this information in an editable file which can be sent to an instructor.

Observations & Questions

A. Calculate the initial and final concentrations as needed to complete Tables 1 and 2.

B. Calculate the average reaction time for each reaction by adding the times for the two trials and dividing by 2.

Data Table 1: Varying the Concentration of 1.0 HCL
—- C o n c e n t r a t i o n s —-
#drops#drops# dropsInitialInitialFinalFinalReaction Time (sec)Reaction
Well#HClWaterNa2S2O3HClNa2S2O3HClNa2S2O3Trial 1Trial 2AverageRate (sec-1)
112081M0.3M16.06s16.72s16.39s
26680.5M0.3M49.16s27.66s38.41
34880.33M0.3M50.10s32.26s41.18

Experiment

Reaction Order and Rate Laws

65

©Hands-On Labs, Inc.

www.LabPaq.com

Data Table 2: Varying the Concentration of 0.3 Na2S2O3
—- C o n c e n t r a t i o n s —
#drops#drops# dropsInitialInitialFinalFinalReaction Time (sec)Reaction
Well#HClwaterNa2S2O3HClNa2S2O3HClNa2S2O3Trial 1Trial 2AverageRate (sec-1)
180121M0.3M16.06s16.72s16.39s
28661M0.1549.16s27.66s38.41
38841M0.150.10s32.26s41.18

C. Calculate the reaction rate by taking the inverse of the average reaction time, i.e., 1 divided by the average reaction time.1. Use table 1 to determine the reaction order for HCl.2. Use table 2 to determine the reaction order for Na2S2O3.Remember, you want to see what happens to the reaction rate when you double the concentration of one reactant while the second reactant remains unchanged. In Part 1, we varied the concentration of HCl while we kept the concentration of Na2S2O3 the same. In Part 2 we varied the concentration of Na2S2O3 while keeping the concentration of HCl the same.These are experimental data and results will be different from some of the nice, even numbers you saw on textbook problems. For example, in this experiment you may double the concentration of a reactant but the reaction rate may increase anywhere from 1.7 times to 2.4 times. This still means an approximate doubling of the reaction rate. On the other hand, if you double a reactant concentration and the reaction rate increases by 0.7 to 1.3 times that probably means that the reaction rate multiplier is one (1).D. Write the rate law for the reaction.E. Using the rate law, the rate, and the appropriate concentration(s) from one (or more) of your experiments calculate k.F. What are the potential errors in this experiment? ConclusionIn this lab, it would appear that the concentration of HCl produced minor effect on the reaction rate. The concentration of the Na2 S2 O3 on the other hand had a substantial part in the reaction rate. The main variationwas amongst wells #1 and #2 where the reaction rate was divided while the concentration of Na2 S2 O3 wasdivided. In well # 3 (prior to adding HCI) it diminished with the smallest concentration of Na2 S2 O3 was presentin the original solution. Therefore for this specific reaction, the rate is reliant on the concentration of Na2 S2 O3and not HCl.The errors that occurred in this lab was contamination involving both parts of the experiment, on the otherhand I was able to use the other empty wells in the 24-platet. An additional error was the correct volume thatwas pipetted from one well to the other well. Lastly, was the stopwatch starting and stopping at the exactmoment.Reference© Hands-On Labs, Inc. LabPaq CK-01 (CK-2)

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SOCW-6090 & 6361-W1-Discussions

Hello,

So this assignment is for chemistry class, please read the instructions very well before offering, it’s really important that I get a good grade. Also, please be on time!

Read the instructions in the pdf file, then answer the questions in the word file.

It should be typed in the word file its self. NO HAND WRITING, just answer the questions of the experiment (After following the pdf file instructions).

It will be submitted by Turn it in , so be careful of copying from the internet sources please.

 
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GLOBAL SIMULATION CHALLENGE

THE ASSIGNMENT

(GENERAL INFORMATION)

PLEASE IN THE GLOBAL SIMULATION CHALLENGE, IT’S LIKE A GAME WITH DIFFERENT ROUNDS, IT HAS ROUND 1 TO 7, AND EACH ROUNDS ARE BEEN PLAY SEPARATE AND HAS DIFFERENT OUTCOME IN EACH, IN THE GAME THE COMPANYS HEADQUATERS ARE TO BE USA WHILE ITS SUBSIDARIES ARE EUROPE AND ASIA, so only three location is in this game.

IN THE GAME THERE ARE MANY GROUP OF PEOPLES, GROUP INTO 4 TO 5 GROUPS IN ORDER TO MAKEUP AND CREATE DIFFERENT COMPANIES IN THE TECHONLOGY INDUSTRY. IN THIS INDUSTRY MY GROUP AND COMPANY NAME IS GAGA COMPANY AND IN THE GAME THERE ARE FOUR PRODUCTS AVAILABLE FOR EACH GROUP AND TEAM TO BASE THERE PRODUCTION AND DECISIONS ON. AND THOSE PRODUCTS ARE IDENTIFY AS TECH 1, TECH 2, TECH 3 AND TECH 4.

HOWEVER GAGA COMPANY CHOSE ONLY TO BASE ITS PRODUCTIONS AND DECISION ON PRODUCT TECH 1, TECH 2 AND TECH4 ONLY BECAUSE OF THERE HIGH RATE OF DAMANDS AND GROW IN THE INDUSTRY.

PART 1 ( HAS 2 QUS)

1.    A critical evaluation of the Global Simulation Challenge and how it could be improved.  (500 WORDS)

2.    A signed letter outlining how the marks should be split. This gives the team an opportunity to reward outstanding contribution or lack thereof. Any additional marks will reduce the team mark. (200 WORDS)

EACH TEAM MEMBER WILL BE AWARDED EQUAILLY DUE TO EQUAL PERPORMANCE FROM EACH TEAM MEMBER SO EACH TEAM MEMBER WILL BE REWARD 25% OF THE MARK. FOUR TEAM MEMBER 25% EACH WHICH MAKE IT TOTAL OF 100% MARK

PART 2

  Individual report  (3 QUS)      (1500 words)

1.     An individual reflection of the round(s) for which you had lead responsibility, to include; legacy, communication, agreement, leading the team, finalizing/agreeing the decisions and analysis of the results.

2.    In depth reflection of the simulation structure and rules, Business Strategy lectures and theory, analysis of the results and the extent to which they informed each other.

3.    A report on the usefulness of the Global Challenge simulation and how it helped you understand the broader concepts of Business strategy and Business in general.

ADDTION INFORMATION THE WILL BE USEFULL FOR PART 2 ANSWERS

Gaga company have the biggest market share in USA in all the ROUNDS 1-7 and the biggest profit in EROUPE and in ASIA gaga company is in third position both in market share and profit.

FROM ROUND 1-5 gaga company mostly base it production and performance on TECH 1 and TECH 2.

FROM ROUND 6-7 the company mostly base on TECH 1, TECH 2 and TECH 4

INFORMATION ON THE STRATEGY

·         MARKET STRATEGY GAGA GROUP USE IS-

High advertisement in use US, price strategy in ASIA by using medium price level to attract  more market AND In EUROPE we maintain high Tech in the market and high research and development strategy in order to improve product quality and maintain best quality products in the market.

·         HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT-

Gaga group always try to add and increase salary in each and every ROUND from ROUND 1 TO ROUND 7 by $50 increase

·         PRODUCTION STRATEGY-

Team Gaga try to maintain lower cost of production and high utilisation of capacity and resource and also have more production plants in ASIA because of Asia low cost of labour and production in order to maintain lower production cost generally.

·         Logistic-

Gaga group try to avoid transportation and reallocation of products between USA and ASIA because of high tax and tariff between the two countries.

·         FINANCE-

Gaga team always pay back long term debt as soon as possible in order to avoid high interest rate.

And more DIVIDEND payment was made especially on the last TWO ROUNDS

 
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