Python Help Assignment

Python Help Assignment
In this assignment you will use PLY, a scanner and parser generator tool to create a scanner and parser for a grammar that is a slight modification to the one in last week’s homework (shown below).

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PLY is a Python version of the popular C tools lex and yacc. Note that using a generator is a simplified way of creating a scanner or parser and is much easier than writing either one manually. Begin by reading the following sections of the PLY documentation (found here). The docs for PLY are very well-written and easy-to-understand. I recommend reading the material closely and tracing through the examples as this will help immensely when you write your scanner/parser generator.

Python Help Assignment

 
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Java Programming Assignment

Java Programming Assignment
Write a program that requests daily sales values of a shop until -1 is entered and compute and display the average sales value and the largest and the smallest daily sales values of the numbers entered.

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Java Programming Assignment

 
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Reinforcement Learning Assignment

Reinforcement Learning Assignment
 
Data Science for Business
 
Reinforcement learning (RL) is a subset of machine learning that is getting more attention in recent years as current research using RL shows promising results in different areas.
Your task in this assignment is to search different sources like textbooks, scientific papers, Tutorials, videos, etc. to learn more about Reinforcement learning and write an article that has the following:

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  • What is the Reinforcement Learning?
  • What are the basics elements that formulate a basic Reinforcement Learning problem?
  • What are the differences between Reinforcement learning and supervised Learning?
  • List three of the most used Reinforcement Learning algorithms with application e.g. games, business applications, etc.
  • Discuss one of the practical applications of Reinforcement Learning. Include pictures or videos links.
  • Include any other interesting facts you found about Reinforcement Learning.

 
Please list all the reference that you use. Use your own words (paraphrase) copy and paste directly is not allowed. Use the APA 6.0 style guidelines
 
Reinforcement Learning Assignment

 
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Frog’s Species Dataset Assignment

Frog’s Species Dataset Assignment
 
Consider using the frog’s species dataset (frogs_species.csv) for this discussion question. For this dataset, please do the following:

  1. Describe the dataset; its main features, labels, clusters, and usage.
  2. Select all features in the dataset then apply a K-means clustering algorithm with a different number of clusters.
  3. Evaluate the results of each run and create a chart that visualizes the results of each number of clusters.

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  4. From your point of view, what is the best number of clusters and why?

Be sure to support your statements with logic and argument, using at least two professional or peer-reviewed articles and cite them to support your statements. Post your initial response early and check back often to continue the discussion
Frog’s Species Dataset Assignment

 
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Data mining Assignment Paper

Data mining Assignment Paper
This week we also discuss the concepts in chapter seven, which deals with the basic concepts and algorithms of cluster analysis.  After reading chapter seven answer the following questions:

  1. What is K-means from a basic standpoint?
  2. What are the various types of clusters and why is the distinction important?
  3. What are the strengths and weaknesses of K-means?
  4. What is a cluster evaluation?
  5. Select at least two types of cluster evaluations, discuss the concepts of each method. Data mining Assignment Paper.

With the increased and widespread use of technologies, interest in data mining has increased rapidly. Companies are now utilized data mining techniques to exam their database looking for trends, relationships, and outcomes to enhance their overall operations and discover new patterns that may allow them to better serve their customers. Data mining provides numerous benefits to businesses, government, society as well as individual persons. However, like many technologies, there are negative things that caused by data mining such as invasion of privacy right. This paper tries to explore the advantages as well as the disadvantages of data mining. In addition, the ethical and global issues regarding the use of data mining
Before a data set can be mined, it first has to be ?cleaned?. This cleaning process removes errors, ensures consistency and takes missing values into account. Next, computer algorithms are used to ?mine? the clean data looking for unusual patterns. Finally, the patterns are interpreted to produce new knowledge.3

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How data mining can assist bankers in enhancing their businesses is illustrated in this example. Records include information such as age, sex, marital status, occupation, number of children, and etc. of the bank?s customers over the years are used in the mining process. First, an algorithm is used to identify characteristics that distinguish customers who took out a particular kind of loan from those who did not. Eventually, it develops ?rules? by which it can identify customers who are likely to be good candidates for such a loan. These rules are then used to identify such customers on the remainder of the database. Next, another algorithm is used to sort the database into cluster or groups of people with many similar attributes, with the hope that these might reveal interesting and unusual patterns. Finally, the patterns revealed by these clusters are then interpreted by the data miners, in collaboration with bank personnel.4

Generally, data mining (sometimes called data or knowledge discovery) is the process of analyzing data from different perspectives and summarizing it into useful information – information that can be used to increase revenue, cuts costs, or both.
Increasingly, organizations are generating vast amounts of data as a result of running a variety of information systems. This data is normally used to record transactions and for status reporting purposes. Data mining Assignment Paper. What data mining does is use elements of statistics, artificial intelligence, machine learning and advance modeling techniques to predict future business trends and customer behavior patterns from large data warehouses and other form of data resources. This is accomplished by running commercial-off-the-shelf applications to convert vast amount of data into actionable, proactive and knowledge-driven decisions.
The two critical success factors for data mining are:
• a large well-integrated data warehouse
• clear understanding of the business process for the application of data mining
Data mining is primarily used today by companies with a strong consumer focus – retail, financial, communication, and marketing organizations. It enables these companies to determine relationships among “internal” factors such as price, product positioning, or staff skills, and “external” factors such as economic indicators, competition, and customer demographics. And, it enables them to determine the impact on sales, customer satisfaction, and corporate profits. Finally, it enables them to “drill down” into summary information to view detail transactional data.
With data mining, a retailer could use point-of-sale records of customer purchases to send targeted promotions based on an individual’s purchase history. By mining demographic data from comment or warranty cards, the retailer could develop products and promotions to appeal to specific customer segments.
In recent times, the relatively new discipline of data mining has been a subject of widely published debate in mainstream forums and academic discourses, not only due to the fact that it forms a critical constituent in the more general process of Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD), but also due to the increased realization that this discipline can be applied in a number of areas to enhance decision making processes, efficiency, and competitiveness in contemporary organizations (Kusiak, 2006). Data mining Assignment Paper.
The basic concept behind the emergence of data mining, and which has contributed immensely to its admissibility as one of the increasingly used strategies in business establishments as well as scientific and research undertakings, is that by automatically sifting through large volumes of information which may primarily appear irrelevant, it should be possible for interested parties to extract nuggets of useful knowledge which can then be used to drive their agenda forward (Adams, 2010).
Goth (2010) observes that the emergence of data mining has been primarily informed by the rapid growth in data warehouses as well as the recognition that this heap of operational data can be potentially exploited as an extension of both business and scientific intelligence.
The present paper seeks to critically discuss the discipline of data mining with a view to illuminate knowledge about its origins, concepts, applications, and the legal and ethical issues involved in this particular field.

Definition & History of Data Mining

Although data mining as a concept has been defined differentially in diverse mediums, this report will adopt the simple definition given by Payne & Trumbach (2009), that “…data mining is the set of activities used to find new, hidden or unexpected patterns in data” (p. 241-242).
The purpose of data mining, as observed by these authors, is to extract information that would not be readily established by searching databases of raw data alone. Through data mining, organizations are now able to combine data from incongruent sources, both internal and external, from across a multiplicity of platforms with a view to assist in a variety of business applications. Data mining Assignment Paper.
At its most elemental state, data mining utilizes proved procedures, including modeling techniques, statistical investigation, machine learning, and database technology, among others, to seek prototypes of data and fine relationships in the sifted data with the main objective of deducing rules and intricate relationships that will inarguably permit the extrapolation of future outcomes (Pain & Trumbach, 2009; Adams, 2010).
Researchers and practitioners are in agreement that the capability of both generating and collecting data from a wide variety of sources has greatly impacted the growth trajectories of data mining as a discipline.
This capability, according to Adams (2010) and Chen (2006), was precipitated by a number of variables, which can be categorized into the following:

  1. increased computerization of business, scientific, and government transactions with the view to increase efficiency and productivity,
  2. extensive usage of electronic cameras, scanners, publication devices, and internationally recognized bar codes for most business-related products,
  3. advances in data gathering instruments ranging from scanned documents and image platforms to global positioning and remote sensing systems,
  4. the development and popularization of the World Wide Web and the internet as widely accepted global information systems.

This explosive growth in stored or ephemeral data brought us to the information age, which was, and continues to be, characterized by an imperative need to develop new techniques, procedures and automated tools that can astutely assist us in transforming and making sense of the huge quantities of data collected via the above stated protocols (Goth, 2010).

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To dig a bit deeper into the history of data mining, research has been able to establish that the term ‘data mining’, which was introduced in the 1990s, has its origins in three interrelated family lines. It is important to note that the convergence of these family lines to develop a unique discipline in the context of data mining certainly gives it its scientific foundation (Adams, 2010).
This notwithstanding, extant research (Adams, 2010; Chez, 2006) demonstrate that the longest of these family lines to be credited with the gradual development of data mining as a fully-fledged discipline is known as classical statistics. Data mining Assignment Paper.
Researchers are in agreement that it would not have been possible to develop the field of data mining in the absence of statistics as the latter provides the foundation of most technologies on which the former is built, such as “regression analysis, standard distribution, standard deviation, standard variance, discriminant analysis, and confidence intervals” (Goth, 2010, p. 14).
All these concepts, according to this author, are used to study data and data relationships – central aspects in any data mining exercise.
The second longest family line that has contributed immensely to the emergence of data mining as a fully-fledged field is known as artificial intelligence, or simply AI. Extant research demonstrate that the AI discipline, which is developed upon heuristics as opposed to statistics, endeavors to apply human-thought-like processing to statistical challenges while using computer processing power as the appropriate medium (Talia & Trunfio, 2010).
It is important to mention that since this approach was tied to the availability of computers and supercomputers to undertake the heuristics, it was not practical until the early 1980s, when computers started trickling into the market at reasonable prices (Goth, 2010).
The third family line to have influenced the field of data mining is what is generally known as machine learning or, better still, the amalgamation of statistics and AI (Adams, 2010). Here, it is of importance to note that while AI could not have been viewed as a commercial success during the formative years, its techniques and strategies were largely co-opted by machine learning.
It is also important to note that machine learning, while able to take the full benefit of the ever-improving price/performance quotients provided by computers in the decades of the 1980s and 1990s, found usage in more applications because the entry price was lower that that of AI, not mentioning that it was largely considered as an evolved facet of AI as it was effectively able to blend AI heuristics with complex statistical analysis (Chen, 2006). Data mining Assignment Paper.

 
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Programming Mobile Devices Research Paper

Programming Mobile Devices Research Paper
Smartphone’s, PADs, tablet computers and other handheld devices that are used to run over operating system are called mobile operating system (Mobile OS). A specified data and programs that run over the mobile devices are referred as mobile operating system. It handles all the hardware and optimizes the performance of the application software in the device. Mobile multimedia functions, Internet connectivity and many other applications are handled by mobile operating system. Base infrastructure software inherent of a computerized system is operating system. It controls all primitive operations of the computer such as PDA and Smartphone. To install and execute the third party applications (known as apps) by users are allowed in the operating system devices. It enumerates new functionalities of the devices. Today mobile devices with a desired OS are called Smartphone’s and a wide range of applications for instances games, apps,communication or social media apps, digital maps, etc are used by users. Programming Mobile Devices Research Paper.

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There are several mobile operating systems like: ios, android, blackberry, symbian os, bada os, windows os, etc…In this audit we are presenting windows operating system and android operating system in brief. Features and applications of these phones have been looked closely in the audit.
TECHNOLOGIES
Android:
Android is an operating system which is used in smart phones. It is an open source software. That is the code is available under the apache license freely for moderation and distribution by device manufacturer. As we know android is the open source software so manufacture modifies it according to their needs and requirements of the user perspective. In 2007 first time android was intended and first time it was…
Conclusion :-
In this audit we have compared two operating system windows and android. android phones are more efficient then windows as it is an open source platform though it is unsecured , one can easilly modifiy the code.
References:-
[1] G. Jindal, M. Jain, “A Comparative Study of Mobile Phone’s Operating
Systems”, International Journal of Computer Applications & Information
Technology, Vol. 1, Issue 3, November 2012.
[2] N. Gandhewar, R. Sheikh, “Google Android: Emerging Software Platform for Mobile Devices”, International Journal on Computer
Science and Engineering (IJCSE), ISSN: 0975–3397, pp. 12-17, 2010.
[3] R. Rayarikar, S. Upadhyay, P. Pimpale, “SMS Encryption using AES
Algorithm on Android”, International Journal of Computer Applications
Mobile devices become more and more important in our lives. Actually, it become global trend to have smartphone. Mobile programming following smartphone movement become one of the most innovative programming. Almost any customer nowadays asking programmers to make for them website that support mobile devices. Statistic also in past few years show that mobile browsing is becoming more popular than desktop PCs or laptops. How important that can be for programmers and how they responding on that? Programming Mobile Devices Research Paper. There is many proofs that focusing on mobile programming is growing opportunity for programmers.
Expansion of mobile devices

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Today almost everybody using smartphones. They are light and portable so people carrying them anywhere. What makes
 
With expansions of mobile devices internet also became faster. Nowadays many devices support 4g and Wi-Fi. It is all about speed and how fast people can search internet. Today almost is impossible imagine life with known internet. People got used do internet help. Anytime we need something and we don’t have information we ask Google. People use apps with internet every day. In the past few years over billion people connected on the mobile device. It used to be slogan “Every home will have PC”, but now they say “I believe every pocket will have handheld”. On the smartphone is many apps that need internet connections. Those internet based apps help do get information in right time on the right place. Example looking for cheaper price of gas, there is many apps for that that will search internet and give us updated prices with locations of gas stations. There is thousands of applications today what work with internet. Apple invented first voice command “Siri” on iPhone 4s. Siri was basic app using internet to recognize voice and answer some basic questions. Siri is expanding from then and using internet nowadays Siri answer just about anything you ask it.Programming Mobile Devices Research Paper.  This is example of one application what use internet connection to do search and help people. It is useful when user is busy driving and want to do quick internet search like ask for closest restaurants, ATM, gas stations,
They are becoming primary communication and access to internet for some people. That huge change happened 2007 when the iPhone fist touch screen smartphone become available. Since then growth in mobile technology was huge. Android derived their smartphone and many more different brands. To meet needs many web developer companies beginning projects of developing sites for mobile devices. From statistics in 2013 there was “500,000 aps for iOS and 260,000 for android”. Following smartphones there is also expansion of new generations of internet and cloud computing. That all give us more portability and mobility. Priority is designing for different screen devices, browsers and processing speed. But that is not all “great mobile sites start with function over form”. To satisfy the peculiarities of mobile devices functionality is very important. So user interface without functionality will damage user reliance. Because of different size of screen user experience and performance will differ from device to device. There is definitely more work for programmer to develop CSS code for desktop PCs and also d to develop code for smartphones. Mobile devices have different capability of processing data and it is will be slow to process huge webpages mad for PC. So there is strategy cutting of code and so it load it faster with same accessibility of data. They must be simple and fast, so users can communicate quickly. Programming Mobile Devices Research Paper.

 
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5.1 Mock Dissertation: Chapter 1 Introduction Paper

5.1 Mock Dissertation: Chapter 1 Introduction Paper
Task:  Write a condensed (2.5 – 3 pages or more is fine) chapter 1 for your mock dissertation topic.  You will use the section headers required from the university dissertation handbook.  See examples provided and the rubric. The following section headings are required:

  • Overview (1-2 well developed paragraphs)
  • Background and problem statement (1-2 well developed paragraphs)
  • Purpose of the study (1 well developed paragraph)
  • Significance of the study (1 well developed paragraph)
  • Research Questions (numbered list)
  • Theoretical Framework (1 well developed paragraph)
  • Limitations of the Study (1 short paragraph)
  • Assumptions (1 short paragraph)
  • Definitions (list)
  • Summary (1 well developed paragraph)

Equity of South Carolina Funded Four-Year-Old Kindergarten Classrooms: Factors Affecting Kindergarten Readiness
 
Introduction Overview
            “Kasserian Ingera? How are the children?” (Vasagar, 2012). The traditional greeting of the fabled African tribe, Masai, recognizes the value of the next generation and understands “society cannot be well unless all the children are well” (Vasagar, 2012). The heart and future of a society hinge on the well-being of all its children. 5.1 Mock Dissertation: Chapter 1 Introduction Paper. A collective impact is necessary to ensure that all students achieve and thrive. Investments in high-quality early childhood education programs are needed to ensure all children have the essential kindergarten readiness skills in the areas of language/literacy, mathematics, social foundations, and physical well-being/motor development to be successful.
Children’s early experiences lay the groundwork for lifelong learning and success. Moss and Haydon’s (2008) research found high-quality early childhood education fosters and supports children’s well-being and their ability to interact effectively with their environment. Many young “children live in communities with significant barriers that can prevent them from reaching their full potential” (Ready at Five, 2019). Children who enter kindergarten, not demonstrating the social-emotional, cognitive, and physical skills needed for success, will continue to struggle academically throughout their school years. Therefore, states need to fund pre-kindergarten programs to ensure all students are kindergarten-ready.

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Due to limited funding for education, many states, including South Carolina, have created homogeneous groupings of low socioeconomic levels within four-year-old kindergarten programs to address the educational and socio-emotional needs of children of poverty. However, current research highlights the saturation of low socioeconomic levels in classrooms lowers classroom quality and experiences (Pianta et al., 2005). Early childhood education programs that limit access to only at-risk students increase the probability that academic achievement gaps will continue to widen since at-risk children do not have the opportunity to engage in a social environment with children from different background experiences (Edwards, 2007; LoCasale-Crouch et al., 2007; Pianta et al., 2005; Reid & Ready, 2013; Schechter & Bye, 2007).    5.1 Mock Dissertation: Chapter 1 Introduction Paper.
Background and Problem Statement
Early childhood education history is often linked back to January 1965 when Lady Bird Johnson held a White House tea to announce federal funding for preschool classes that would break the vicious cycle of poverty (Lascarides & Hinitz, 2000). The federally funded Head Start early childhood program introduced the idea that early education of our young children was a public responsibility. After decades of early childhood education program evaluations, state legislators and educators both endorse the need to develop and fund high-quality early childhood programs. States’ policymakers have increased funding for early childhood education programs from $200 million in 1988 to $7.5 billion in 2018 (Education Commission of the States, 2019; National Center for Children in Poverty, 2000). “A robust body of research shows that children who participate in high-quality preschool programs have better health, social-emotional, and cognitive outcomes than those who do not participate” (U.S. Department of Education, 2015).
Greater awareness of early childhood as a critical developmental period has led to the aim of promoting high-quality children’s experiences in pre-kindergarten programs through a focus on healthy social/behavior development and academic/cognitive learning (Biddle, Crawford, & Seth-Purdie, 2017). Early childhood education is an essential foundation for developing learning behaviors and skills necessary for future success. Moss and Haydon (2008) defined education “as fostering and supporting the general well-being and development of children and young people, and their ability to interact effectively with their environment and to live a good life” (p. 2). Early childhood education programs have the potential to give all children a jump start to kindergarten by supporting both educational and social behaviors. High-quality early childhood education programs are the key to ensuring all children have equal access to learning opportunities and experiences.
Children from low-income and disadvantaged backgrounds enrolled in high-quality early childhood programs enter kindergarten academically ready (Ansari, Pianta, Whittaker, Vitiello, & Ruzek, 2019). 5.1 Mock Dissertation: Chapter 1 Introduction Paper. The U.S. Department of Education (2015) continues to stress the need for “significant new investments in high-quality early education” to help close the school readiness gaps between disadvantaged children and their more advantaged peers. The Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) also highlighted the need for states to make early childhood education a priority, especially for children identified as at-risk for academic success. The substantial amount of public funding directed at early childhood education programs has increased from $200 million in 1988 to $7.5 billion in 2018 (Education Commission of the States, 2019; National Center for Children in Poverty, 2000). This increase in funding has increased the demand for additional research on the implications of structural programming requirements, student demographics (including race, gender, and socioeconomic levels), and composition of diversity on program quality and kindergarten readiness.
Most children in the United States have their first school experiences in four-year-old early childhood programs rather than in kindergarten (Hustedt & Barnett, 2011). Pre-kindergarten initiatives vary from state to state; however, they all share some common characteristics. First, all pre-kindergarten programs are voluntary. Second, programs are funded and directed by each states’ education department that identifies early learning standards that range from academic content knowledge, social/emotional development, motor development, and language development (Hustedt & Barnett, 2011). Also, states have identified required structural components to receive early childhood funding; these structural components include the location of service, length of the program, teacher certification, and class size. Most states have limited early childhood funding to only children meeting at-risk criteria such as socioeconomic level, ethnicity, or disability; also, some states provide preschool funding based on geographical locations. For example, South Carolina’s early childhood funding system segregates children in four-year-old kindergarten based on families’ socioeconomic conditions,
however, only funds these programs if the families reside in a rural, high-poverty county.
Currently, many states are solely funding four-year-old kindergarten programs for at-risk students, which limits the cultural and economic diversity needed for heterogeneous classrooms. Research studies centered around socioeconomic diversity and educational impact are necessary to justify the money spent on numerous segregated at-risk four-year-old kindergarten programs across the nation. Recent research highlights that the saturation of poverty in the classroom is related to lower classroom quality even though early childhood education programs aim to address the educational and socio-emotional needs of children from low-income backgrounds. Socioeconomic segregation of children may negatively impact the cognitive and social development of children, along with perpetuating the educational gap seen along socioeconomic lines. States’ policies and procedures, in regards to student selection and structural features of programs related to classroom, teacher, and child characteristics, may create unintended consequences. More research is needed to determine if the lack of racial and economic diversity is impacting the potential benefits of early childhood education programs.
High-quality preschool programs should enhance the early learning experiences for all children and develop the background knowledge and skills necessary for school readiness (Pelatti et al., 2016). Research is divided and often not conclusive on what constitutes essential components to create high-quality early childhood programs that impact academic and social outcomes. Numerous research studies have analyzed structural components and requirements of early childhood education programs and the impact on student achievement; however, all of these studies have been unable to specify which elements lead to measurable kindergarten readiness (Bainbridge et al., 2005; Bowne et al., 2017; Clifford et al., 2005; Magnuson et al., 2005; Pelatti et al., 2016). Recent research has suggested four possible mechanisms which impact the quality of early childhood education programs: 1) differences in structural components and curriculum/teaching; 2) peer effects on cognitive learning; 3) peer effects on social development; and 4) parent involvement (Reid & Ready, 2013). Current literature acknowledges that structural components are not the only variables in creating a high-quality early childhood education program; classroom diversity and sociocultural learning opportunities can positively impact the learning outcomes (Clifford et al., 2005; Pelatti et al., 2016; Pianta et al., 2005; Reid & Ready, 2013; Schechter & Bye, 2007).  5.1 Mock Dissertation: Chapter 1 Introduction Paper.
Few research studies have focused on program design, classroom behaviors, and student achievement predictors of classroom quality for publicly supported at-risk pre-kindergarten programs with limited socioeconomic and ethnic diversity. Schechter and Bye’s (2007) research highlighted the importance of a diverse composition of students in early childhood classrooms and the requirement of these classes to incorporate activities where students can learn from each other’s experiences and background knowledge. Reid and Ready’s (2013) research study suggests that all children in an integrated early childhood education program learn more than a classroom primarily composed of children from low-income backgrounds with the same ethnic backgrounds. The research studies by Reid and Ready (2013) as well as Schechter and Bye (2007) show a correlation between achievement skills and integrated socioeconomic and ethnic classrooms; however, neither of these studies utilized a standardized achievement measure to determine the relationship between the diversity composition of a program and academic success.
The regular and consistent patterns of positive interactions between teachers and peers impact classroom experiences (Brown, Jones, LaRusso, & Aber, 2010). With current funding policies and procedures, South Carolina’s structural design of early childhood programs is trapping the youngest of South Carolina’s at-risk children in a cycle of educational poverty. South Carolina’s pre-kindergarten policy limits access to a heterogeneous grouping of students, which eliminates the sociocultural benefits of exposing children to a variety of cultures and environments to enhance problem-solving and critical thinking. Ultimately, in South Carolina, this design has led to not only socioeconomic segregation but also segregation of ethnic races in four-year-old kindergarten classrooms. By eliminating the cultural and economic diversity in these classrooms, South Carolina has diminished the “social and cultural nature of the developmental process and the role of peers assisting each other in learning” (Edwards, 2007, p. 84). Additional research is needed to evaluate the impact of kindergarten readiness in programs serving only at-risk four-year-old students as compared to a more diverse classroom population where children can learn from each other.
Due to the limited state funding available for early childhood education, programmatic and structural components of four-year-old pre-kindergarten programs must be providing the social-emotional, cognitive, and physical skills necessary for students to be kindergarten ready. South Carolina is in the early stages of implementation of the Child Early Reading and Development Education Program (CERDEP) for at-risk students and the requirement of a Kindergarten Readiness Assessment (KRA) for all 5K students. Data are being collected in South Carolina to determine the impact of pre-kindergarten programs on kindergarten readiness; however, no research study has evaluated all of these components. The primary goal of this quantitative study was to use the S.C. kindergarten data to investigate how kindergarten readiness scores compare between children attending a structured four-year-old kindergarten program or not. The next goal was to investigate how the kindergarten readiness scores compared based on the location (public or community-based) of CERDEP classrooms. Finally, the study was to compare the differences in kindergarten readiness assessment scores between white, African American, and Hispanic students who attended a four-year-old kindergarten program.
The research will provide school district leaders and state policymakers guidance and evidence of potential changes in funding or structural components needed to ensure all students receive a high-quality early childhood education program that prepares them for kindergarten success. Ultimately, the study would be a tool for parents and community members to identify the early childhood programs which positively impact kindergarten readiness and help minimize the educational achievement gaps between all populations. South Carolina parents deserve the right to know which types of early childhood programs will produce quality academic achievement and kindergarten readiness so that they can make informed decisions on the best program for their child.
Purpose of the Study
State and local policymakers are searching for kindergarten readiness data to support the continued funding of early childhood programs. They are looking for features of interest, including whether the programs are full- or part-day, housed in school or community settings, universal or targeted groups of students, staffed by certified teachers or individuals with less formal training. Research has shown that children who have had high-quality preschool classroom experiences will enter kindergarten more school ready with better language development, reading skills, and math skills (LoCasale-Crouch, 2007). A cyclical pattern of inequality in education and income may be attributed to a lack of access to quality early childhood programs (Bainbridge et al., 2005) as well as a lack of access to an early childhood setting that incorporates opportunities for interactions with children from different backgrounds. Reid and Ready’s (2013) research found that children’s learning in classrooms with diverse ethnic and socioeconomic composition equals or even rivals the impact of children’s family backgrounds in a year of schooling. 5.1 Mock Dissertation: Chapter 1 Introduction Paper. However, lawmakers have not had access to many research studies analyzing the impact of the ethnic and socioeconomic composition within the programs on academic readiness.
Current literature acknowledges that structural components are not the only variables in creating a high-quality early childhood education program; classroom diversity and sociocultural learning opportunities can positively impact the learning outcomes (Clifford et al., 2005; Pelatti et al., 2016; Pianta et al., 2005; Reid & Ready, 2013; Schechter & Bye, 2007). The purposes of this study were to test Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory (1978) by comparing enrollment in four-year-old kindergarten programs, comparing locations of CERDEP four-year-old kindergarten programs, and by comparing ethnicity in four-year-old kindergarten programs in terms of the Kindergarten Readiness Assessment scale scores in the domains of language/literacy, mathematics, social foundations, physical well-being/motor development and overall readiness of students in a rural, high-poverty South Carolina county.
 
Research Questions
The following questions guided this research. 1) How did students who attended a structured four-year-old kindergarten program perform on the Fall 2018 Kindergarten Readiness Assessment (KRA) in the areas of language/literacy, mathematics, social foundations, physical well-being/motor development, and overall kindergarten readiness as compared to students who did not attend a four-year-old kindergarten program? 2) In Fall 2018, how did CERDEP qualified students in a public school setting perform on the kindergarten readiness assessment as compared to CERDEP students who attended a four-year-old kindergarten program housed at Head Start or First Step daycares? 3) In Fall 2018, what were the differences in kindergarten readiness assessment scores between ethnic groups who attended a four-year-old kindergarten program?
Theoretical Framework
The theoretical framework of this study is based on John Dewey’s and L. S. Vygotsky’s similar ideas regarding the relationship between everyday activities and social environment play on the learning process (Glassman, 2001). Although the two theorists do not agree on the process or goals for education, both theorists believe strongly that “natural human activity serves as the major impetus for learning” (Glassman, 2001, p. 3). Both Dewey and Vygotsky believe the educational process requires attention to social history, experiences or culture, and human inquiry.  5.1 Mock Dissertation: Chapter 1 Introduction Paper.
Dewey’s and Vygotsky’s position on the most critical educational approaches vary greatly; however, both theorists agree that “the human condition is based in social interactions” (Glassman, 2001, p. 3). Dewey believed in long term projects where the teacher acts as a facilitator to guide students to set goals and choose a direction that interests them through the exploration of everyday life situations. Vygotsky, however, “wants to use the educational process to teach new members of the social community how to use important culturally developed tools in an effective manner” (Glassman, 2001, p. 4). Both theorists’ educational approach requires children to be engaged in social interactions, whether teacher or student-driven. Vygotsky’s educational approach of the zone of proximal development requires a teacher to provide the learner with scaffolding to support the student’s evolving understanding of complex skills. The following figure depicts Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development where the “distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem-solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers” (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 86).
 
Figure 1. Vygotsky’s theory of the zone of proximal development. This zone is the area of exploration for which the student is cognitively, socially, and physically prepared, but requires help and social interaction to fully develop. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.ceebl.manchester.ac.uk/events/archive/aligningcollaborativelearning/Vygotsky.pdf
Collaborative learning and modeling are strategies supported by Vygotsky to facilitate a “higher level of understanding under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers” (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 86). Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory highlighted the importance of peer interactions and differing peer abilities.
Sociocultural theorists believe group members should have different levels of ability, so more advanced peers can help less advanced peers. Therefore, limiting early education programs to solely at-risk students who often have the same ethnicity and socioeconomic level can potentially limit the learning opportunity for our students in most need. States’ policymakers may need to reevaluate their approach to restricting funding for four-year-old kindergarten solely to at-risk students, which often limits the ethnic and economic diversity. This segregation of children may negatively impact the cognitive and social development of children, along with perpetuating the educational gap seen along ethnic and socioeconomic lines. More research is needed to evaluate the impact of state-funded four-year-old kindergarten programs on kindergarten readiness concerning the location of programs as well as the ethnic and economic composition within early childhood education programs.
Limitations of the Study
Despite the researcher’s best efforts, the results of the study were affected by the following limitations: 1) Two school districts and nine schools were studied, so test administrators’ training for the Kindergarten Readiness Assessment (KRA) may vary between schools and districts.5.1 Mock Dissertation: Chapter 1 Introduction Paper. Although, district KRA trainers received the same State Department of Education training material to use with their kindergarten teachers, and all teachers had to pass the KRA content and KRA inter-rater reliability assessment with an 80% before administering the assessment. 2) Testing environment conditions such as lighting, temperature, and noise distractions may have varied from classroom to classroom, school to school, and district to district. 3) This study only evaluated one rural South Carolina county’s kindergarten readiness scores. Therefore, results may not represent scores from other counties due to differences in four-year-old pre-kindergarten programs, geographic locations, and socioeconomic levels within the community.
Assumptions of the Study
           The study accepted the following assumptions. 1) All parents/guardians completing the school districts’ five-year-old kindergarten enrollment paperwork understood the questions and correctly answered them. Enrollment questions included whether their child attended a four-year-old kindergarten program, what type of program their child attended, the length of the program (half-day or full-day), and knew the name of the provider. 2) Demographic and prior care program coding in the state database PowerSchool and Enrich system were correct. 3) All students had an equal opportunity to participate in the Kindergarten Readiness Assessment within the first 45 days of school.
Definition of Terms
           The study used the following definitions.
Approaching Readiness – The student demonstrates some foundational skills and behaviors that prepare him or her for kindergarten standards (South Carolina Education Oversight Committee, 2019). The performance descriptor is the KRA overall readiness or domain scale score of 258 – 269 (Maryland State Department of Education, 2019).
Child Early Reading and Development Education Program (CERDEP) – South Carolina legislation codified with the approval of the Read to Succeed law, Act 284, on June 11, 2014. CERDEP requires (1) programs to have a reading proficiency plan, (2) successful administration of a four-year-old readiness assessment, (3) developmental and learning support necessary for kindergarten readiness, (4) parenting education, and (5) identification of community organizations to support early literacy efforts. The South Carolina Department of Education oversees participating public school district programs, and South Carolina First Steps for School Readiness oversees Head Start, private child care programs, and other non-district providers. Students’ families must meet Medicaid eligibility or have a family income at or below 185% of the Federal Poverty definition to qualify for CERDEP. (South Carolina Department of Education, 2018a). 5.1 Mock Dissertation: Chapter 1 Introduction Paper.
Community-based – For this study, community-based locations include four-year-old kindergarten programs provided at First Steps Child Care facilities or Head Start Programs within the county. (South Carolina Department of Education, 2018a).
Demonstrating Readiness – KRA performance level descriptor of Demonstrating Readiness shows overall readiness or domain scale score of 270 – 298 (Maryland State Department of Education, 2019). The student demonstrates foundational skills and behaviors that prepare him or her for kindergarten standards (South Carolina Education Oversight Committee, 2019).
Early Childhood Education Program – These are predominately three-year-old pre-kindergarten programs or four-year-old kindergarten programs (Hustedt & Barnett, 2011). For this study, references to early childhood education programs will be solely four-year-old kindergarten programs.
Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) – The Lyndon B. Johnson administration’s War on Poverty campaign passed the ESEA act. The original goal of the law was to improve educational equity by providing federal funds to support districts serving students from lower-income families. ESEA has been reauthorized eight times. The most recent reauthorization was in December 2015 when President Obama and Congress signed the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). (U.S. Department of Education, n.d.)
Emerging Readiness – KRA Performance level descriptor of Emerging Readiness based on a KRA overall readiness or domain scale score of 202 – 257 (Maryland State Department of Education, 2019). A student demonstrates limited foundational skills and behaviors that prepare him or her for kindergarten standards (South Carolina Education Oversight Committee, 2019).
Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) – In December 2015, President Obama and lawmakers reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) by revamping 2002 No Child Left Behind ESEA reauthorization. The central goal of ESSA is to improve educational opportunities and outcomes for children from lower-income families. (U.S. Department of Education, n.d.)
First Steps Child Care/Public – A CERDEP funded community-based center housed in a private registered child care facility, income-based, developmentally appropriate education program. The program must adhere to best practices, using research-based curriculum and assessments. These programs must meet DSS regulations and SCDE Guidelines (South Carolina Department of Education, 2019).
Head Start – A program of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that provides comprehensive early childhood education, health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families (South Carolina Department of Education, 2019).
Informal Child Care – A family member or other caregivers provide child care in an unregulated home that is not subject to regulations or formal guidelines (South Carolina Department of Education, 2019).
Kindergarten Readiness Assessment (KRA) – The KRA is an assessment administered to each child entering public school kindergarten within the first 45 days of the school year in South Carolina. The assessment provides information on children’s readiness for kindergarten in four domains: Language and Literacy, Mathematics, Physical Well-Being, and Motor Development, and Social Foundations (South Carolina Education Oversight Committee, 2019).
Language and Literacy – KRA readiness assessment domain measuring skills such as reading, writing, speaking, and listening (South Carolina Education Oversight Committee, 2019).
Mathematics – The KRA readiness assessment mathematics’ domain measures skills such as counting comparison and sorting (South Carolina Education Oversight Committee, 2019).
Observational rubric – KRA items describe specific behaviors or skills to be observed by the teacher during typical classroom activities, lunchroom, or recess areas. Teachers use the rubric to assign up to two points for these skills (Maryland State Department of Education, 2019).
Performance level descriptors – KRA evaluates students’ kindergarten readiness as either Demonstrating Readiness, Approaching Readiness, or Emerging Readiness. Students demonstrate the skills and behaviors that reflect their readiness to engage in instruction based on kindergarten content standards (Maryland State Department of Education, 2019).
Performance task – KRA items consist of an activity that is completed by the child using manipulatives to allow the student to demonstrate the skill assessed. These items are scored with a rubric and can be work one to three points (Maryland State Department of Education, 2019).
Physical Well-Being and Motor Development – KRA readiness assessment domain measuring students’ abilities such as dexterity, muscular coordination, and balance (South Carolina Education Oversight Committee, 2019). 5.1 Mock Dissertation: Chapter 1 Introduction Paper.
Prior care – Prior care are the categories of early child care enrollment within twelve months before starting kindergarten (South Carolina Education Oversight Committee, 2019).
Private four-year-old kindergarten – Student enrolled in a full-day private four-year-old kindergarten program (South Carolina Department of Education, 2019).
Public four-year-old kindergarten – Student enrolled in a South Carolina public school (South Carolina Department of Education, 2019).
Pupil in Poverty – South Carolina identifies students from families of low socioeconomic as a pupil in poverty (PIP) in Power School (South Carolina Department of Education, 2019).
Selected response – KRA selected-response items consist of a question or prompt where children choose one of three answers. The child indicates his or her response by touching or saying one of the three answer options. Each item is worth one point (Maryland State Department of Education, 2019).
Social Foundations – KRA readiness assessment domain measuring students’ abilities to follow the rules, cooperate with others, ask for help, problem solve, and task persistence (South Carolina Education Oversight Committee, 2019).
South Carolina First Steps for School Readiness – First Steps oversees CERDEP private child care programs and other non-district providers. First Steps provides family choices of pre-kindergarten between school districts or eligible non-district settings (South Carolina Department of Education, 2018a).
Summary
State and local policymakers are searching for kindergarten readiness data to support the continued funding of early childhood programs. They are looking for high-quality features of interest, including whether the programs are full- or part-day, housed in school or community settings, universal or targeted groups of students, staffed by certified teachers or individuals with less formal training. Children who have high-quality preschool classroom experiences will enter kindergarten more school ready with better language development, reading skills, and math skills (LoCasale-Crouch, 2007). A cyclical pattern of inequality in education and income may attribute to a lack of access to quality early childhood programs (Bainbridge et al., 2005) as well as a lack of access to an early childhood setting that incorporates opportunities for interactions with children from different backgrounds. Reid and Ready’s (2013) research found that children’s learning in classrooms with diverse socioeconomic composition equals or even rivals the impact of children’s family backgrounds in a year of schooling. However, lawmakers have not had access to many research studies analyzing the effects of the socioeconomic and ethnic composition within the classrooms and program sites on academic readiness.
Helburn and Howes (1996) found evidence that parents, especially ones with limited education or low socioeconomic status, struggle to evaluate the quality of child care centers, and many end up selecting low-quality programs that may be harmful to their children. Parents from limited educational homes or low socioeconomic backgrounds have limited options for early childhood education programs to enroll their children. Many times these programs are only for at-risk students even though research has started to show limited diversity within early childhood programs can negatively affect academic achievement and students’ kindergarten readiness (Reid & Ready, 2013). Therefore, leaving the choice of early education and care of young children to parents who have limited resources to evaluate the quality of early childhood education programs increases the inequalities in children’s readiness for school and potential secondary school outcomes.

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Chapter one presented the background for this study, specified the problem, described the significance of that problem, established the purpose, clarified the research questions, described the theoretical framework, and stated some of the limitations contained within the study. Chapter two will review the related literature. Chapter two includes the sociocultural theory behind the need for diversified classrooms as well as the need and benefits of quality early childhood education programs. The second chapter also reflects on current early childhood education program policy and funding requirements for children in South Carolina and assessment structures in place to be able to evaluate program effectiveness. Chapter three presents a description of the research design, the research methodology utilized, the subject selection, the statistical tests used, and the instrumentation used in this study. The results of the investigation outlined in chapter three are presented in chapter four. Chapter four provides a detailed statistical analysis of the Kindergarten Readiness Assessment data and the presentation of results linked to the research questions.5.1 Mock Dissertation: Chapter 1 Introduction Paper.  A summary of the research, interpretation of findings, and the research limitations are discussed in chapter five. Chapter five also discusses the implications for further investigation. This research study offers parents, district school leaders, and state policymakers insight on the importance of four-year-old pre-kindergarten programs. As well as identifying which programs produce quality academic achievement and kindergarten readiness to ensure future enrollment and funding decisions are made based on all students having access to high-quality early childhood education programs.
 
 
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Statistical Analysis and Application Paper

Statistical Analysis and Application Paper

You will review both quantitative and qualitative research.  The topic is up to you as long as you choose a peer-reviewed, academic research piece.  I suggest choosing a topic that is at least in the same family as your expected dissertation topic so that you can start viewing what is out there.  There are no hard word counts or page requirements as long as you cover the basic guidelines.  You must submit original work, however,  and a paper that returns as a large percentage of copy/paste to other sources will not be accepted.  (Safe Assign will be used to track/monitor your submission for plagiarism. Submissions with a Safe Assign match of more than 25% will not be accepted.) Please use APA formatting and include the following information:

  • Introduction/Background:  Provide context for the research article.  What led the author(s) to write the piece? What key concepts were explored? Were there weaknesses in prior research that led the author to the current hypothesis or research question?

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  • Methodology:  Describe how the data was gathered and analyzed.  What research questions or hypotheses were the researchers trying to explore? What statistical analysis was used? Statistical Analysis and Application Paper.
  • Study Findings and Results:  What were the major findings from the study? Were there any limitations?
  • Conclusions:  Evaluate the article in terms of significance, research methods, readability, and the implications of the results.  Does the piece lead to further study? Are there different methods you would have chosen based on what you read? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the article in terms of statistical analysis and application? (This is where a large part of the rubric is covered.)
  • References

Statistical Analysis and Application Paper

 
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Data Science And Big Data Analytics Paper

Data Science And Big Data Analytics Paper
Question 1 :  
There is still much confusion regarding what Blockchain is and what it is not.  Please discuss your explanation of Blockchain to include why it has been gaining so much popularity.
Please make your initial post and two response posts substantive. A substantive post will do at least two  of the following:

  • Ask an interesting, thoughtful question pertaining to the topic
  • Answer a question (in detail) posted by another student or the instructor
  • Provide extensive additional information on the topic
  • Explain, define, or analyze the topic in detail
  • Share an applicable personal experience
  • Provide an outside source  that applies to the topic, along with additional information about the topic or the source (please cite properly in APA)
  • Make an argument concerning the topic. Data Science And Big Data Analytics Paper.

At least one scholarly source should be used in the initial discussion thread. Be sure to use information from your readings. Use proper citations and references in your post.
Question 2 : 
Practical Connection Assignment: On Data Science and Big Data analytics course
Provide a reflection of at least 500 words (or 2 pages double spaced) of how the knowledge, skills, or theories of this course have been applied, or could be applied, in a practical manner to your current work environment. If you are not currently working, share times when you have or could observe these theories and knowledge could be applied to an employment opportunity in your field of study. Requirements:

  • Provide a 500 word (or 2 pages double spaced) minimum reflection.
  • Use of proper APA formatting and citations. If supporting evidence from outside resources is used those must be properly cited.
  • Share a personal connection that identifies specific knowledge and theories from this course.
  • Demonstrate a connection to your current work environment. If you are not employed, demonstrate a connection to your desired work environment.
  • You should not provide an overview of the assignments assigned in the course. The assignment asks that you reflect how the knowledge and skills obtained through meeting course objectives were applied or could be applied in the workplace.  Data Science And Big Data Analytics Paper.

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Question 3 :
This paper centered around Bitcoin Economics.  For this  research paper, search the Internet and explain why some organizations are accepting and other organizations are rejecting the use of Bitcoins as a standard form of currency.  Your paper needs to identify two major companies that have adopted Bitcoin technology as well as one that has refused accepting Bitcoin as a form of currency. Be sure to discuss each organization, how they adopted (or why they won’t adopt) Bitcoin, and what recommendations you have for them to continue to support Bitcoin (or why they should support Bitcoin).Your paper should meet these requirements:

  • Be approximately four to six pages in length, not including the required cover page and reference page.
  • Follow APA 7 guidelines. Your paper should include an introduction, a body with fully developed content, and a conclusion.
  • Support your answers with the readings from the course and at least two scholarly journal articles to support your positions, claims, and observations, in addition to your textbook.
  • Be clearly and well-written, concise, and logical, using excellent grammar and style techniques. You are being graded in part on the quality of your writing. Data Science And Big Data Analytics Paper.
 
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