Causes, Symptoms, and Impacts of Climate Change Essay

Causes, Symptoms, and Impacts of Climate Change Essay
 

While not a scientifically controversial issue, climate change caused primarily by human activities is a politically controversial issue. In this course you have learned the science behind climate change (both natural and human-caused). With this knowledge, you have been given the tools to help explain the causes, symptoms, and impacts of climate change which you can now use to help current and future generations develop solutions to mitigate and adapt to a changing climate.

WORDER A PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER NO

Please discuss the following questions: (1) How does the greenhouse effect play a role in determining the Earth’s climate? (2) What human activities are impacting the carbon cycle? (3) How does having an overloaded carbon cycle impact the greenhouse effect? (4) Before taking this class, did you understand or “believe” that human-induced climate change is occurring? Explain why or why not. Have you ever had a conversation with someone else about climate change? (5) How would you engage in a discussion with a climate change skeptic? Based on what you have learned in class, would you feel confident in your ability to explain the science behind climate change? What evidence would you present? (For a great resource on communicating climate science, consider watching the following TED talk by Dr. Causes, Symptoms, and Impacts of Climate Change EssayKatharine Hayhoe! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-BvcToPZCLI) (6) Explain at least 3 impacts of climate change that should be a concern for any individual and future generations. (7) Discuss at least two things that humans can do to mitigate or adapt to a changing climate. (8) Why should businesses, politicians, or government officials have a vested interest in working to lower carbon emissions to lessen the severity of the impacts of a changing climate?

 
 
 
Causes, Symptoms, and Impacts of Climate Change Essay

 
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Managerial Epidemiology Essay

Managerial Epidemiology Essay
 
HSA-6520 Managerial Epidemiology:   Week 1
Critical Reflection Paper: Chapters 1 to 3
 
Objective: To critically reflect your understanding of the readings and your ability to apply them to your Health care Setting.
ASSIGNMENT GUIDELINES (10%):
Students will disapprovingly evaluate the readings from Chapter 1 to 3 in your textbook. This assignment is designed to help you assessment, inquiry, and apply the readings to your Health Care setting as well as become the foundation for all of your remaining assignments.Managerial Epidemiology Essay
You need to read the chapter assigned for week 1 and develop a 2-3-page paper reflecting your understanding and ability to apply the readings to your Health Care Setting. Each paper must be typewritten with 12-point font and double-spaced with standard margins. Follow APA style 7th edition format when referring to the selected articles and include a reference pageManagerial Epidemiology Essay.

WORDER A PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER NO

EACH PAPER SHOULD INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING:

 

  1. Introduction (25%) Provide a short-lived outline of the denotation (not a description) of each Chapter and articles you read, in your own words.
  2. Your Critique (50%)

What is your reaction to the content of the Chapters?
What did you absorb about the History and Scope of Epidemiology?
What did you acquire about the Practical applications of Epidemiology?
Did these Chapters change your thoughts about the Measurement of mortality and Morbidity? If so, how? If not, what remained the same?

  1. Conclusion (15%)

Fleetingly summarize your thoughts & deduction to your critique of the Chapters you read.  How did these articles and Chapters impact your thoughts on Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act?
Evaluation will be based on how clearly you respond to the above, in particular:

  1. a) The clarity with which you critique the Chapters.
  2. b) The depth, scope, and organization of your paper; and,
  3. c) Your conclusions, including a description of the impact of these Chapters on any Health Care Setting.

 
Managerial Epidemiology Essay

 
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Industrial Hygiene Journals

1. The placement of the industrial hygiene and safety functions in an organization’s structure can greatly impact how successful the programs will be. Some organizations place health and safety programs under the human resources department. Other organizations place these programs under the plant manager or the production manager. If you were a safety officer for an organization, where would you place health and safety programs in the organizational structure? Explain why you believe this placement would work best for your organization.

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words. No references or citations are necessary

2. You have been asked to perform a job hazard analysis (JHA) at your place of employment. Which method would you use to perform the JHA? Explain your choice.

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words. No references or citations are necessary.

3. Discuss a gas or vapor that you have dealt with in a workplace. Include information about how worker exposures were evaluated. If you have never had sampling for a gas or vapor performed in your workplace, review either the NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM) or the OSHA Sampling and Analytical Methods, and choose a vapor or gas that looks interesting to you.

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words. No references or citations are necessary.

4. The current OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) for nuisance dust is 15 mg/m3 as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposure. The ACGIH has published a threshold limit value (TLV) for inhalable dust of 10 mg/m3. OSHA is required to consider economic and feasibility influences as well as health impacts for establishing or updating PELs. The ACGIH can consider only the health impacts when establishing TLVs. Imagine you are a safety officer having to establish an occupational exposure limit (OEL). Discuss how you would come to this exposure limit.

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words. No references or citations are necessary.

5. OSHA uses a 5 dBA exchange rate, meaning that the allowed exposure time is cut in half for every increase in exposure of 5 dBA. ACGIH and NIOSH recommend a 3 dBA exchange rate because noise energy exposure actually doubles every 3 dBA. OSHA explains the use of the 5 dBA exchange rate as a means to account for the time during a workday that the employee is not exposed to noise, like breaks. Imagine you are a safety officer who has to choose which exchange rate is preferable to use at your organization. Discuss in your journal entry whether the 5 dBA or the 3 dBA exchange rate should be used for controlling occupational noise exposure.

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words. No references or citations are necessary.

6. Imagine that you are a safety officer, and you have been asked to recommend a type of ventilation system for your company. Which one would you choose, and why?

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words. No references or citations are necessary.

7. OSHA allows respirator fit testing to be performed using either qualitative fit testing (QLFT) methods or quantitative fit testing (QNFT) methods that are specified in Appendix A of 29 CFR 1910.134. Discuss the fit testing methods with which you are familiar and which methods you prefer to use. If you have never been fit tested or performed fit testing, read Appendix A and discuss which of the methods you believe would be the easiest to perform. Give the reasons for your choice.,How can you apply what you learned in this course to your career or life success?

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words. No references or citations are necessary.

 
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Unit VII Case Study (BOS 3640)

Unit VII Case Study For this assignment, you are the lead incident commander for a hazardous materials incident similar to those that have been introduced in this course. In this scenario, HLF Polyurethane Manufacturing was undergoing a maintenance activity in which an acid gas feed line segment required replacement. Pressure gauges were not installed in the line to monitor activity or to indicate if the line was operational. Upon initiating the line breaking activity (opening the line to the atmosphere) under self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), there was an uncontrolled release of acid gas. A nearby welding operation provided the ignition source and the flammable gas was ignited. The following actions were initially taken: The evacuation alarm was sounded and the facility emergency response team (ERT) was activated. The plant manager and the local fire department were notified of the incident. The incident command was established at the facility office near the main access gate to the south (this is the furthest distance within the property boundary from the incident location). The incident commander implemented actions required under the approved emergency response plan. The ERT was not able to immediately isolate the source of the incident. The fire department arrived on location and assumed the incident command of the event. Additional Relevant Information: The facility encompasses an area measuring 2000 feet by 1400 feet. The nearest residential community is located approximately 1000 feet to the northeast. A plastic recycling plant is located along the south fence boundary of the refinery. A major interstate highway runs directly parallel to the plant. The ambient temperature on the day of the incident was 85° F and the wind was blowing at 7 mph from the southwest to the northeast. Work crews were scheduled to work 12-hour shifts, 24-hours a day, to complete the incident response. The facility has a trained ERT that can respond to incidents. Your essay must address the following: Summarize the incident. Identify all hazardous materials involved, their classifications and their physical properties. Discuss chemical incompatibility and interactions relevant to this incident. Discuss any short or long term mitigation necessary. Explain how the lead incident commander should respond to this incident based on the Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG). 

Click the link below to access the ERG at the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration OSH 3640, Interactions of Hazardous Materials 3 website: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration. (n.d.). Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG). Retrieved from http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/library/erg Explain the corrective action plan that should be implemented based on the ERG to prevent a reoccurrence of this event. Your response must be at least one page in length (not counting the cover page or reference page). All sources used, including the text, must be referenced. Paraphrased and quoted materials must have accompanying in-text and reference citations in APA format. Your response must be at least one page in length (not counting the cover page or reference page). All sources used, including the text, must be referenced. Paraphrased and quoted materials must have accompanying in-text and reference citations in APA format.

 
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HSA 535 Midterm Exam —————-84 Out Of 100

Question 1 .

The first step in any epidemiological investigation is to ____.

Answer

understand causation establish risk factors track trends and determine if particular diseases are increasing or decreasing in the population describe the population demographically by age, race, sex, education, and other relevant indicators

Question 2 .

One of the important concepts from the Nuremberg Code is that of ____, which means that the subject understands the scope of the study and can make an informed decision to participate.

Answer

informed consent voluntary consent beneficence primary agent

Question 3 .

A disease or condition that affects a greater than expected (normal) number of individuals within a population, community, or region at the same time is referred to as an ____.

Answer

epidemic endemic outbreak epidemic threshold

Question 4 .

The normal occurrence of a disease or condition common to persons within a localized area is known as a(n) ____.

Answer

transmission pandemic endemic epidemic

Question 5 .

Reproductive health studies ____.

Answer

the role of genetics in disease development the occurrence and risk factors for disease such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes that are slow to develop but span many years the distribution and risk factors for injuries, either accidental or intentional normal reproductive processes and problems that can occur including infertility, birth defects, and low birth weight

Question 6 .

The course of a disease, if left untreated, is referred to as ____.

Answer

transmission control measure natural history geographic pattern

Question 7 .

Physical, biological, social, cultural, and behaviors that influence health are known as ____.

Answer

risk factors health-related states agents determinants

Question 8 .

James Lind (1716-1794) observed the effect of time, place, weather, and diet on the spread of disease by ____.

Answer

comparing sick persons to well persons applying the germ theory to public health introducing randomization when conducting clinical trials applying the germ theory to hygiene practices

QUestion 9

The aspect of consistency means that ____.

Answer

an increasing amount of exposure increases the risk the association should be compatible with existing theory and knowledge the association is consistent when results are repeated in studies in different settings using different methods the findings agree with currently accepted understanding of pathological processes

QUestion 10

The modern epidemiologic triangle includes groups of populations, causative factors, and ____.

Answer

alternate explanations risk factors results coherence

Question 11

For chronic diseases, the time between exposure and symptoms is called the ____ period, which can range from a few months to many years.

Answer

latency incubation temporal plausibility

Question 12

Risk factors or exposures that we think might affect the outcome are known as ____.

Answer

indirect causes direct causes dependent variables independent variables

QUestion 13

Identifying diseases prior to the clinical stage means that prevention efforts can begin immediately. Because the disease is already present, this is an example of ____ prevention.

Answer

primary secondary tertiary quaternary

QUestion 14 The time between infection and clinical disease is referred to as a(n) ____.

Answer

a plausible period temporal period incubation period latency period

Question 15 .

A proportion measured over a period of time is known as a ____.

Answer

period prevalence prevalence proportion point prevalence rate

Question 16

The representation of a numerator as a fraction of a denominator is known as a(n) ____.

Answer

proportion rate incidence rate specific rate

Question 17 .

Prevalence equals ____.

Answer

incidence times duration of disease incidence divided by duration of disease incidence plus duration of disease incidence divided by duration of disease times 100

Question 18 .

While many people are used to hearing proportions represented as a percentage, many population samples in epidemiology are often presented per ____.

Answer

1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000

.Question 19 .

By definition, the disease or condition used to identify a case is determined by the ____.

Answer

hypothesis conclusion prevalence incidence

Question 20 .

A person in the population or study group identified as having the particular disease, health disorder, or condition under investigation is known as a ____.

Answer

person time case suspect case proportion

QUestion 21:

The number of new cases of disease in a specified time (usually one year) divided by the population “at-risk” to develop the disease is known as ____.

Answer

prevalence proportion incidence rate contingency case severity

Question 22 .

The number of existing cases of disease divided by the population is known as ____.

Answer

crude rate person time incidence rate prevalence proportion

Question 23 .

If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is called a ____.

Answer

multidrug resistant drug or super-drug multidrug resistant bacterium or superbug resistant bacterium or streptococcus bacterium killer bacterium or deadly bacterium

.Question 24 .

The disease carrier of most concern is known as a(n) ____, which is an infected person who never gets clinically ill, but can transmit the etiologic agent to others.

Answer

healthy or passive carrier pregnant carrier convalescent carrier active carrier

Question 25 .

____ is the transmission of a disease from mother to child during pregnancy or delivery.

Answer

Horizontal transmission Vertical transmission Lateral transmission Polar transmission

Question 26

There is ____ in the overall crude death rate in the United States from the year 1900 until 1996.

Answer

a definite increase a slight decrease hardly any change a clear decline

Question 27 .

The probability of death due to infectious disease in sub-Saharan Africa is ____%, but only ____% in developed countries, such as the United States.

Answer

22; 1.1 35; 10 66; 11 50; 22

Question 28 .

One of the most important emerging problems with the control of infectious diseases has to do with ____.Answer

deadly parasitic infections antibiotic resistant viral infections antibiotic resistant bacterial infections vaccine resistant viral infections

Question 29 .

A(n) ____ is an infected individual capable of transmitting disease during and after clinical disease.

Answer

convalescent carrier passive carrier active carrier inactive carrier

Question 30 . ____ is the transmission of a disease from person to person, and may be directly from one person to another, or indirectly from one person through an intermediate item to another person.

Answer

Horizontal transmission Vertical transmission Quick transmission Polar transmission

 
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Ecology Online Simulation

Measuring species interactions and resulting population changes can be challenging. It often requires intensive field work over several seasons and locations, extensive funding, and numerous skilled scientists. Simulations allow us to learn about species interactions and population dynamics through play and exploration. This ecological simulation is an opportunity to experiment with species interactions in order to learn about different potential outcomes. Responses to follow-up questions should be based on the simulation results and content from your textbook, as well as other scholarly or credible sources.  To complete the ecology laboratory assignment for this week, follow the steps below: •Read this week’s assigned chapters •Download and review the Ecology Laboratory Instructions (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. and follow the steps indicated. •Download the Ecology Laboratory Reporting Form (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. All of the data will be reported and the questions answered directly on this form. This is the form that you will submit to Waypoint for grading.  When completed, save the Ecology Laboratory Reporting Form (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. as a Word document. No title page or headers are necessary. If you include any outside resources to complete the questions, then they should be formatted according to APA

ATTACHED ARE THE CHAPTERS FOR THIS ASSIGNMENT. ATTACHED IS THE INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE LAB SIMULATOR ( ACCESS THE SIMULATOR FORM THE LINK PROVIDED HERE CLICK ECOLOGY AT THE TOP OF PAGE) ATTACHED IS THR REPORT FORM THAT MUST BE USED AND FILLED OUT….ALL PARTS MUST BE ANSWERED!!! ATTACHED IS THE GRADING RUBICS SO YOU KNOW WHAT EXACTLLY MUST BE INCLUDED IN THE REPORT!!!! USE IT!!!!! Kim woods contact me at baldisbest1971 a yahoo. cannot communicte with anyone through here!!!! willing to pay $18

 
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Any Takers 1

Choose from one of the following environmental topics that is an issue in your area. 

  • Sustainable Urban Planning (South Eastern Rural Area)

Create a 10-15 slide PowerPoint Presentation. The presentation should provide a detailed description of a sustainability plan for your selected environmental issue. Include the following: 

  • Introduce your choice. Explain why this issue is important for humans, wildlife and the environment.
  • Detailed description of the problem. Present specific details about your selection. This might include a specific habitat, ocean, species, forest, agricultural method, or energy source.
  • What are the social, economic, and environmental perspectives regarding your choice?
  • Explain how unsustainable human consumption has caused the problem. Describe the effects the problem is creating for people, wildlife, and the environment.
  • Present a plan or approach that is currently being used to address this problem, or a similar problem. Is the current strategy effective. Why or why not?
  • Your plan to reach sustainability. Consider the sustainability plans presented in the assigned reading, videos and the Gamescape Episodes.
  • Explain how your plan includes social, economic, and environmental perspectives.
  • Identify the stakeholders in your plan (local community residents, businesses, governmental agencies, non-profit organizations,etc.). What is the role of each of these groups in ensuring that the paln is successful?
  • Close by reviewing your plan and explain why you think it will be more successful than current actions. 

Include speaker notes for each slide totaling 7500-1050 words total

Include supporting visuals, such as photos, diagrams, and/or graphs.

Include at least four outside sources. Two of the sources must be academic journal articles from the University’s library. 

Must be completed in APA format, relate to information covered in all five attached gamescapes as well as the text book chapters also attached. 

 
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Carbon Dioxide Lab

Carbon Dioxide Lab
This week’s readings included a discussion surrounding the ongoing debate of whether or not to add carbon dioxide to the list of air pollutants regulated by the EPA (p. 546). Regardless of current policy, research shows that carbon dioxide is one of the central gases responsible for global climate change and its increase over time can be attributed to multiple environmental concerns.  The following lab will illustrate the dangers of carbon dioxide emissions and provide an introduction to modeling of future outcomes. To complete the lab for this week, follow the steps below:
 

  1. First, download the Carbon Dioxide Lab Reporting Form. All data will be reported and questions answered directly on this form.  
  2. Secondly, open the Carbon Dioxide Lab Instructions, and follow the steps indicated.


When completed, save the Carbon Dioxide Lab Reporting Form as a Word document. No title page or headers are necessary; however, should you utilize any outside resources to complete the questions they should be properly cited according to on the reference page.

ATTACHED IS THE Carbon Dioxide Lab Reporting Form. ALSO THE Carbon Dioxide Lab Instructions,

EVERY PART OF THE CHART MUST BE FILLED AND EVERY QUESTION ASKED MUST BE ANSWERED!!!! ATTACHED IS THE GRADING FOR THIS ASSIGNMENT SO YOU KNOW WHAT IS EXPECTED!!!! ALSO ATTACHED ARE THE RESOURCES NEEDED!!! THE LAB NEEDED IS IN THE RESOURCES!!!! ATTACHED IS PAGE 546 CONCERNING THE EPA !!!! REMEMBER TO CITE WORK

 
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BOS 3525, Legal Aspects Of Safety And Health Unit I To Unit VIII Assignment

BOS 3525, Legal Aspects of Safety and Health Unit I to Unit VIII Assignment

Unit I Assignment

Hi Jerry! This is your OSHA’s Area Director.

We received a non-formal complaint recently from one of your current employees. The complaint alleges that employees there are performing welding operations on stainless steel in an area with inadequate ventilation.

This employee also states that they frequently “cough up” black sputum, and that they are worried about the health consequences caused by this lack of ventilation.

The complaint further states that no air sampling has been performed to evaluate the employees’ exposures to welding fumes. And, that when asked for respirators, they were given “dust masks” with one strap, which were purchased at the local hardware store. The effectiveness of these dust masks for the exposure that is present is also in question.

I will also be sending you an email summarizing this non-formal complaint, so that you can respond accordingly.

Thanks Jerry! Goodbye.

Part 1

Draft a letter in response to the complaint. Your letter should summarize why you believe the complaint is invalid and no on-site inspection is required. Keep in mind, simply stating that the complaint is invalid is not adequate. You must support your opinions in the letter.

Part 2

(Answer the following question on the page 2 of your word document) Answer the questions below in a few sentences.

1. Where does this type of complaint fit on OSHA’s Priority criteria?

2. What factors could have made this complaint non-formal rather than formal?

 3. What steps could you take as the employer to identify the employee who filed the complaint? 4. What factors could result in this complaint being reclassified as a formal complaint?

Save both parts of this assignment in one word document to submit for grading.

Unit II Assignment

Discussion Question

Question 1

Under what conditions can an employee be denied access to the opening conference, walk-around, and closing conference? Your response should be at least 75 words in length.

Question 2

If the OSHA compliance officer requests documents that are not related to a formal complaint, what options do you believe the employer has? Your response should be at least 75 words in length.

Question 3

If OSHA determines that an employer’s response to a non-formal complaint is adequate, what options does the employee filing the non-formal complaint have? Your response should be at least 75 words in length.

Question 4

Can an employee request that an attorney or union representative attend a private conference with the compliance officer? If the union demands to have a representative present, does the employee have to comply? Your response should be at least 75 words in length.

Unit II Assignment

You receive a follow-up call from the area director saying the employee filing the original non-formal complaint has provided additional information about the alleged health situation and submitted a formal complaint using the OSHA-7 form, making the complaint a formal complaint. A few days later, an OSHA compliance officer shows up at your facility to perform a comprehensive inspection. The compliance officer presents the proper credentials, and you verify that the compliance officer is employed by OSHA and assigned to the local office.

During the opening conference, the compliance officer provides you with the formal complaint, alleging that employees are exposed to hazardous concentrations of metal fumes in welding areas of the plant, that you have not performed any air sampling to determine exposure levels, that adequate ventilation is not present in welding areas, and that adequate respiratory protection has not been provided to welders. As a part of the inspection, the compliance officer requests the following documents:

 Chemical inventory list;

 OSHA 300 logs;

 Hazard Communication Program, including training records;

 any sampling data that you have;

 Respiratory Protection Program, including medical clearance letters and training records;

 written hazard assessment for personal protective equipment (PPE) used at the facility;

 Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) for the metals you use in the production process and any welding rods/wire used in the welding area; and

 any other written programs you have that are required by an OSHA regulation.

The compliance officer takes a walk-through tour of the facility, spending extra time in the welding areas. During the walk-through, the compliance officer points out several issues believed to be apparent violations. The issues are as follows:

 Heavy haze is present in the welding area.

 Individuals wearing half-mask air-purifying respirators have full beards.

 Employees are using chemicals that could be injurious to the eyes, and no emergency eyewash is present.

 Eyewash is present in another area of the plant that is covered in dust, and there is no indication of recent operation or inspection.

 Employees are using chemicals that could be absorbed through the skin and are not using any gloves.

 Employees are performing maintenance inside a press with no lock-out/tag-out applied.

 No written lock-out/tag-out program is available at the time of the inspection.

 Welding operation is performed near flammable materials, and no fire watch present.

 There is no record of training for fork truck drivers.

 Extension cords are stretched across walkways.

 Three containers are present in the plant with no label present on any of the containers.

 An employee could not find a SDS for the chemical he or she was using.

The compliance officer asks for a private conference room and a list of non-managerial employees. He tells you that he intends to interview four non-managerial employees before leaving for the day. He also states that he will return the next day to collect some air samples at the facility.

You are worried about the number of citations and penalties that you may face. Provide a document summarizing the steps you would take as soon as the compliance officer leaves, and the steps you believe you could have taken during the walk-through that may have resulted in a quick-fix penalty reduction.

Your document must be at least three pages in length, not counting the title or reference pages. You must also include at least one reference using appropriate APA style.

Information about accessing the Blackboard Grading Rubric for this assignment is provided below.

Unit III Assignment

You receive a document (linked below) by certified mail. After reading the document, prepare a response that summarizes the approach you would take to the citations and penalties that have been proposed. Be sure to include the following in your response:

 Steps you are required to take,

 Options available to you,

 Contacts you would make, and

 Documentation necessary to respond to the citations and penalties.

Your response must be a minimum of two pages in length, using at least one reference. All sources must be cited and a reference provide using APA style.  Click here to access the OSHA citation document for this assignment. Information about accessing the Blackboard Grading Rubric for this assignment is provided below.

Unit IV Assignment

Based on the Citation and Notification of Penalty letter you received in Unit III, prepare a document that summarizes at least five actions you would take as soon as possible after you reviewed the letter. For each of the actions, you must state the following:

 the exact action,

 why you believe the action is required for the citations and penalties,

 how you believe the actions will assist in responding to the citations and penalties, and

 resources you would use to accomplish the action.

You must support your actions with reliable sources. Your response must be a minimum of two pages in length, using at least one reference. All sources must be cited, and a reference must be provided using APA style.

Information about accessing the Blackboard Grading Rubric for this assignment is provided below.

Unit V Assignment

You managed to schedule an informal conference with the area director at the regional OSHA office four days after you receive the Notice of Citations and Penalty. Based on the citations and penalties you received in Unit III, prepare a document that lists the citations and penalties you wish to discuss with the area director.

You should summarize what you are trying to accomplish in regard to each citation/penalty you choose, to include:

 The information you will use to try and accomplish your goal,

 The information you will take with you to the meeting, and

 Who will accompany you to the meeting.

You must support your actions with reliable sources. Your grade will be based on your ability to present a case to your professor (serving as the area director) to reduce either the severity of some citations, or the amount of some penalties. If you simply state that you accept the citations and penalties as written, you will receive a minimal score on the assignment.

Your response must be a minimum of two pages in length, not including the title page and reference page. You must use at least one reference in the paper. All sources must be cited in the text and on the reference page, using APA style.

Unit VI Assignment

You fail to reach an informal settlement agreement with the area director. You file a Notice to Contest within the required 15-day period. Your case is assigned to an administrative law judge (ALJ). Prepare a document summarizing the case you will submit to the ALJ. The document should discuss the following at a minimum:

 Which citations and penalties you would contest,

 the reasoning behind each contested citation and/or penalty,

 Documents you would bring to the hearing,

 Individuals you would use at the hearing,

 How the case before the ALJ differs from the informal conference,

 What information will be presented before the ALJ that was not presented in the informal conference, and

 What information you would request from OSHA as part of discovery.

You must support your actions with reliable sources. Your grade will be based on your ability to present a case to your professor, serving as the ALJ, to reduce or vacate either the severity of some citations or the amount of some penalties. If you simply state that you accept the citations and penalties as written, you will receive a minimal score on the assignment.

Your response must be a minimum of two pages in length, using at least one reference. All sources must be cited in the text and on the reference page, using APA style.

Unit VII Assignment

Assume that a fatality occurred at your facility one month prior to the OSHA inspection. Review the citations and penalties that were assessed to your facility, and respond to the following questions:

• Which of the citations could be referred to the U.S. DOJ for criminal proceedings?

• What conditions would have to be met before the citations could be referred for criminal proceedings?

• Which individuals working at your facility could face criminal charges under the Act?

• What would be the maximum prison sentence and fines that any individual would face?

• What would be the maximum fine that the company would face?

 • If you were facing criminal charges under the Act, what would be your best defense?

• How could you involve the OSHRC in the criminal case(s)?

Your response must be a minimum of two pages in length, using at least one reference. All sources must be cited in the text and on the reference page, using APA style.

Unit 8- Question Answer

1. Summarize the procedures required to achieve Star status under OSHA’s Voluntary Protection Program (VPP).

2. Describe the role that Challenge Administrators play in the OSHA Challenge voluntary cooperative program.

3. Provide your opinion as to which OSHA voluntary cooperative program would be the most beneficial to a small business that prints business cards and letterhead.

4. Discuss the benefits that OSHA alliances provide to employers and workers in general industry.

 
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