## Geog lab

Lab 10: Landforms

Adapted for UMD GEOG 211 by Amanda Hoffman-Hall

Source: Amy Brock-Hon, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

In this lab, you will use Google Earth to visit landforms across the Earth that have been formed by the processes described in lecture. If you have not yet covered a type of feature, or are not in the lecture course, this lab will require some additional research on your part. Consider this lab as a holistic review of everything you’ve learned in Physical Geography!

Stop 1

This stop brings us to a fabulous nick point in a stream that sits on the border between two countries. Zoom into the placemark, adjust the navigation tool to where north and south are reversed. Tilt the horizon and zoom into the feature. This placemark is showing a nick point in a stream. A nick point is a point of rapid erosion and incision at which as streambed is eroded to a new base level by a stream. A waterfall is a nick point. Zoom out to where you can see the whole system (~12 miles) and answer the following questions:

1A) This famous nick point is called what?

1B) Which direction is the river flowing?

1C) What are the names of the two bodies of water that the river connects?

1D) The Niagara escarpment is 170 feet high. What does this suggest about the elevation between the two bodies of water connected by the river?

Stop 2

Stops 2 and 3 bring us to a river in the Arctic region of northwestern Alaska. This river runs nearly 280 miles and drains an area approximately 12,300 square miles.

2A) What fluvial feature is marked at stop 2?

2B) What is the name of this river?

Stop 3 Make sure that you zoom out in this area and observe the spectacular scars of the system!

3A) What fluvial feature is marked at stop 3?

3B) This feature is the result of what river process?

3C) What term is a way to quantify rivers, by dividing the distance along the river “as the fish swims” by the distance over the land “as the bird flies”?

Stop 4

This stop brings us to the Portuguese Bend Reserve in Palos Verdes, California. The Portuguese Bend Reserve consists of rolling hills, five distinct steep canyons and rock outcrops, with coastal sage scrub habitat.

4A) The feature under the placemark – what is this called?

4B) The two features surrounding the placemark (out into the water) – what are they called?

Stop 5

Now we’re off to one of the most famous features in Japan, snow-capped and depicted often in art and photography from the country.

5A) What geologic feature is this?

5B) What drainage pattern is observed at this stop?

5C) Is this feature active or inactive?

Stop 6

For Stop 6 & 7 we’re going to look at two very similar – but also different – landforms.

6A) What is the name of this formation (note that it travels up and down the coast, it is not just directly under the pushpin)?

6B) This landform is created by the convergent boundary between the South American plate and the __________ plate.

6C) Where the two plates meet, the denser oceanic lithosphere of the 6B Plate is forced down and under the more buoyant continental lithosphere of the South American Plate, descending at an angle into the mantle in a process called ____________.

Stop 7

7A) What is the name of this formation (like 6A, this formation is not JUST under the pushpin, but travels far northeast and southwest)?

7B) True/False: The feature in 7A is also currently near a convergent boundary, between the North American and African plates.

7C) Which formation older? 6A or 7A?

Stop 8

Next we’re going to travel north! Quite a bit north. Hint: To help with the following questions, turning on Photos in the Layers tab can be useful.

8A) What is the name of the feature at this stop?

8B) The long inlet to the east of the pushpin, which was carved by 8A, is known as a what?

Stop 9 For Stop 9 we’re going closer to home. I should hope any University of Maryland student will be able to discern where we are!

9A) What is the name of the feature at this stop?

9B) The feature in 9A is similar to the inlet described at Stop 8, but created differently – what is this inlet called?

Stop 10

Off to Stop 10 towards the western coast of the US. Data from previous labs may prove helpful for this one.

10A) Notice the dry stream bed at this location. Observe the channel geometry, notice is bends nearly 90 degrees. This would make it a _______ drainage pattern.

10B) Zoom out from this location. Does your overall location give you some clue as to why the stream bed bends in such a way? It is likely due to _______ activity.

10C) More specifically, what is the (quite famous) name of the feature causing the stream bed to bend?

Stop 11

Stop 11 is going to take us to a National Park in Utah. For this stop make sure you have Photos turned ON in the Layers tab – it will give you a much better view of the formations here.

11A) As hinted by the name of the park itself – when looking through the photos, what are the famous formations, such as Double O, Tunnel, Skyline, Surprise, and Delicate, called?

11B) Prior to the formations in 11A forming, they start out as more solid structures before being eroded away – you can see examples of them in the photos and aerial views. What are these structures called?

11C) This park receives on average 0.51 in of precipitation and 2 in of snow per year. While water is certainly a driving erosional force within the park (just look at the river to the east of the pushpin!) the dry climate and features within the park all point to what other type of erosion occurring there?

Stop 12

12A) What is the name of the feature visible under the pushpin?

12B) What type of feature is it?

12C) 12B has been continuously erupting for quite some time! In what year did it start erupting, making it the longest-lived rift zone eruption of the last two centuries?

12D) On the same island as 12B is its more famous neighbor, Mauna Loa. What type of feature is Mauna Loa?

12E) The type of feature found on this island is usually seen at tectonic plate boundaries, however these examples are nowhere near a plate boundary. Instead, they are considered intraplate, more commonly referred to as ___________.

Stop 13

At this next stop you will want to zoom and tilt to get a better view of the feature to the east of the pushpin.

13A) The feature here is evidence of what?

13B) The event that caused the feature in 13A occurred after a 15 day period of near-record what?

Stop 14

Head south…way south for this next stop. This is the Rio Negro River in Brazil which is a major tributary of the Amazon River.

14A) What type of channel pattern is represented by this river?

14B) Follow the river until it joins the main channel and follow the main channel east until it reaches the ocean. What is this feature called?

Stop 15

Stop 15 brings us under the sea!

15A) What is the name of this feature?

15B) How deep is it at its deepest point? (While you can use the elevation information at the bottom of the Google Earth window, it would be best to research this) Report in feet.

15C) While the eastern part of this feature has been named the Gonâve Microplate, what two major plates meet here at a transform boundary?

Stop 16

Stop 16 brings us back up out of the sea, but not far removed. Along the coast of Florida there are many interesting features, some of which are seen here.

16A) The two white sandy features nearly closing off the inlet are what type of feature?

16B) If the two features met in the middle, completely closing off the inlet, what would it then be called?

Stop 17

Not far from Stop 16 is Dog Island, an island inhabited entirely by dogs (just kidding).

17A) What type of island is this?

17B) This feature, as well as the features in 16A, are evidence of what type of coastline?

Stop 18

Now we’re viewing one of the most famous peaks in the world, which gets it notable shape from a certain erosional process. When you first approach this stop you’ll start on the north side of the peak. Fly around the peak to get a better view.

18A) Notice the sharp, almost knife-like ridges that lead up to the top of the peak. What are these ridges called?

18B) Between the features in 18A are a specific type of valley – what are these referred to as?

18C) When three or more of the landforms in 18A and 18B meet, a pyramidal peak is formed, also called a _____ – as is the case with this famous peak!

Stop 19

Stop 19 brings us to Wisconsin. If you are not familiar with the processes that formed much of the landscape in Wisconsin take the time to research it now.

19A) Based on your research, what type of lake is Elkhart Lake?

19B) What type of process is dominating the formation of the landforms at Stop 19 and 18?

Stop 20

Our last and final stop!

20A) These looks like waves! But they are not – what are they?

20B) Which of the following is NOT a type of the feature identified in 20A?

20C) Which desert is Stop 20 located in?

FINAL LAB QUESTION

21) Pick ANY landform – it can be a specific landform, like Mt. Rainer, Ayers Rock, or Dauphin Island, or a “type” of landform, such as a tarn, bluff, sea stack, plateau, beach, volcano, alluvial fan, etc. It can be one we visited in this lab, or discussed in lecture, or a landform that you learn about on your own.

For whichever landform you pick you are going to write a detailed explanation of how it is created/formed. Is it created by erosion or deposition, or both? Are glacial, fluvial, aeolian, coastal, or other processes involved? In order to receive full points your essay must be at least 500 words and contain sufficient detail of all of the facets that work together to create your chosen landform. This is the time to bring together everything you’ve learned about Physical Geography! Answer this question in the Lab 10 Essay Answer Sheet.

## Plate Tectonics Lab Assignment After Reading The Introduction To The Plate Tectonic Exercises In The Manual, Complete The Questions…

Plate Tectonics Lab Assignment
After reading the introduction to the Plate tectonic exercises in the manual, complete the questions on a hard copy of this Lab Assignment. When finished, transfer your answers to the lab assessment in BB Vista, save each answer individually if you feel that you are not to going to complete the whole assignment in one sitting. Do not press the “FINISH” button until you have filled all the answers and are ready to get it graded. Before the submission deadline, you can open the incomplete lab assignment for modifications as many times as you wish, but you will only be able to submit it once for a grade.
Part 1- Lab Manual
The exercises that follow are adaptations of the Plate Tectonics exercises contained in the lab manual. Note that the number that precedes the text of the question corresponds to the identifying number of that question in the lab manual.
Lab Manual (Busch 9th Edition) Activity 2.8: The Origin of Magma

1. (Question A1, Figure 2.7) According to the continental geothermal gradient, rocks buried 80 km beneath a continent would normally be heated to what temperature?
At 80 km depth, rocks will be heated to about _ degrees Celsius
2. 1500
3. 1000
4. 750
5. 200
6. (Question A2, Figure 2.7) According to the oceanic geothermal gradient, rocks buried 80 km beneath an ocean basin would normally be heated to what temperature?
At 80 km depth, rocks will be heated to about _ degrees Celsius
7. 1500
8. 1000
9. 750
10. 200
11. (Question A3, Figure 2.7) What is the physical state of the peridotite at point X?
12. 100% liquid
13. a mixture of solids and liquid
14. 100% solid
15. (Question A4, Figure 2.7) What happens when the peridotite in point X is heated to 1750 °C?
16. no change
17. partial melting
18. complete melting
19. (Question A5, Figure 2.7) What happens when the peridotite in point X is heated to 2250 °C?
20. no change
21. partial melting
22. complete melting
23. (Question B1, Figure 2.7) At what depth and pressure will peridotite at point X begin to melt if it is uplifted closer to Earth’s surface and its temperature remains the same?
24. 75 km, 24,000 atm
25. 65 km 20,000 atm
26. 40 km 13,000 atm
27. 20 km 8,000 atm
28. (Question B2 and B3) When mantle peridotite melts as a result of being uplifted in the way described in the previous question, the process is called__________ and is likely to happen at __.
29. solidus crystallization, divergent boundaries
30. solution, convergent boundaries and hot spots
31. recrystallization melting, hot spots
32. decompression melting, divergent boundaries and hot spots
33. (Question C, Figure 2.7) According to your answers to the previous four questions related to the peridotite at point X being subjected to changes in pressure and temperature, which two processes would lead to melting?
34. decrease in pressure and temperature
35. increase in pressure and temperature
36. decrease in pressure and increase in temperature.
37. increase in pressure and decrease in temperature

Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Activity 2.8 part D: A few modifications will allow you to run the experiment described in this section using materials readily available in your home. The hot plate can be replaced by a foil lined frying pan on the stove burner. The two sugar cubes can also be replaced by two teaspoonfuls of sugar; the secret is not to add excessive water to the sample that needs to be wet. Extra water will dissolve the sugar and obscure the interpretation of
your results. Prepare all the experiment materials directly on the cool burner to avoid mixing of the two samples when you move the foil. Place on the stove burner the foil lined pan, the two separate heaps of sugar and add the drops of water on one of the heaps. Then turn the stove on at medium heat, and observe.

1. (Question D1) Which sample melted first?
2. the dry sample
3. the wet sample
4. (Question D2) The rapid melting that you observed in the sample that melted first is called “flux melting,” because flux is an added component the speeds up a process. What was the flux?
5. sugar
6. water
7. silicates
8. (Question D3, Figure 2.8) The effect of water on peridotite is similar to its effect on the sugar experiment, therefore when peridotite is heated in “wet” conditions, the line of the “wet solidus” would be located to the _ of the “dry solidus” in Figure 2.8.
9. right, to higher temperatures
10. left, to lower temperatures
11. (Question D4) Looking at Figure 2.1 for a hint, indicate in what tectonic setting may water enter the mantle and produce flux melting of peridotite?
12. hot spots
13. subduction zones
14. mid-oceanic ridges
15. transform faults
16. (Question E3, Figure part E). Which choice best describes the sequence of processes leading to the formation of mid-oceanic ridge volcanoes?
17. “ wet” seafloor basalt subducts and dehydrates, water induces flux melting of mantle peridotite above, basaltic magma ascends and forms volcanoes.
18. flux melting, magma ascends to the surface forming volcanoes, peridotite rises, subduction
19. magma ascends, decompression melting of peridotite, peridotite pushes the basalt open and forms volcanoes.
20. peridotite ascends, decompression melting forms basaltic magma, magma pushes and cracks the ocean floor basalt open, and erupts forming volcanoes
21. (Question F3, Figure part F). Which choice best describes, the processes leading to the formation of a continental volcanic arc, in chronological order? (Beware of error in F3: the words between brackets “oceanic ridge” should be replaced with “continental volcanic arc”).
22. “ wet” seafloor basalt subducts and dehydrates, water induces flux melting of mantle peridotite above, basaltic magma ascends and forms volcanoes.
23. flux melting, magma ascends to the surface forming volcanoes, peridotite rises to shallow depth and melts, subduction.
24. magma ascends, decompression melting of peridotite, peridotite pushes the ocean floor basalt open and forms volcanoes.
25. peridotite ascends, decompression melting forms basaltic magma, magma pushes and cracks the ocean floor basalt open, and erupts forming volcanoes

Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Activity 2.3: Using Earthquakes to identify Plate boundaries

1. Refer to the figure in activity 2.3. Which of the following places represent a Benioff Zone? (Hint: refer back to the notes for unit 3)
2. 10°S, 110°W
3. 0°, 90°W
4. 0°, 80°W
5. 20°S, 100°W
6. The Benioff zone is associated with which type of plate boundary?
7. Divergent
8. Convergent (Continent-Continent)
9. Convergent (Continent-Ocean)
10. Transform
Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Activity 2.4: Analysis of Atlantic Seafloor Spreading
To solve questions in this section, review how to work with graphic scales and the metric system in Unit 2. Use a ruler to measure the distance between features and determine the equivalent distance in the ground using the graphic scale. (A ruler is contained in the GEOTOOLS Sheet 1,
at the end of your lab manual). The distance you determine will be in kilometers (km). Convert the distance to centimeters (cm), remember 1000 meters = 1 kilometer.
Remember that the rate of movement is equivalent to the plate velocity. Velocity can be calculated dividing the distance the plate traveled by the time it took to cover that distance:
velocity = distance/time.
Choose the answers that best approximate to your calculated values, make sure you use the required units.
11. (Question B, Figure page 49). Notice that points B and C were together 145 million years ago, but did the sea floor spread apart at the same rate on both sides of the mid-ocean ridge?
12. Same Rate
13. Faster on the East
14. Faster on the West
15. (Question C, Figure page 49). How far apart are points B and C, today in kilometers?
16. ~3,250 km
17. ~3,850 km
18. ~4,250 km
19. ~4,550 km
20. (Question C.1, Figure page 49). Calculate the average rate, in km per million years, at which points B and C have moved apart over the past 145 million years.
21. 8 km/my
22. 16.4 km/my
23. 27.6 km/my
24. 31.8 km/my
25. (Question C.2, Figure page 49). Convert your answer above from km per million years to mm per year.
The result is __ in mm per year.
26. 10 times less than the previous answer
27. Same as the previous answer
28. 10 times more than the previous answer
29. 100 times more than the previous answer
30. (Question D, Figure page 49). Based on your answer in question 19, how many millions of years ago were Africa and North America part of the same continent? (Hint use points D and E).
31. ~150 million years
32. ~165 million years
33. ~180 million years
34. ~200 million years
35. (Question E, Figure page 49). Based on your answer in question 20, how far in meters have Africa and North America moved apart since the United States was formed in 1776 to 2011?
36. ~0.6 meters
37. ~6 meters
38. ~15 meters
39. ~25 meters
Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Activity 2.5: Plate motion along the San Andres Fault
Part A. The two bodies of Late Miocene rocks (~25 million years old) located along either side of the San Andres Fault (map- page 51) resulted from a single body of rock being separated by motions along the fault. Note the arrows show the relative motion.
40. (Question A1, Figure page 51). Estimate the average annual rate of movement along the San Andres Fault by measuring how much the Late Miocene rocks have been offset by the fault and by assuming that these rocks began separating soon after they formed.
What is the average rate of fault movement in centimeters per year (cm/yr)?
41. ~0.1 cm/year
42. ~1.3 cm/year
43. ~13 cm/year
44. ~25 cm/year
45. (Question A2, Figure page 51). Most of the movement along the San Andres Fault occurs during earthquakes. An average movement of about 5 m (16ft) along the San Andres Fault was associated with the devastating 1906 San Francisco earthquake that killed people and destroyed property. Assuming that all displacement along the fault was produced by earthquakes of this magnitude, how many Earthquakes are needed to produce the displacement observed in the previous question?
46. ~1,000
47. ~10,000
48. ~65,000
49. ~100,000
Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Activity 2.7: Plate tectonics of the Northwest United States
Notice the ages of seafloor rocks in Figure 2.6. The modern seafloor rocks of this region are forming along a divergent plate boundary called the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The farther one moves away from the plate boundary, the older the seafloor rocks.
50. (Question B2, Figure 2.6). Notice the seafloor rocks older than 8 million years are present west of the Juan de Fuca Ridge but not east of the ridge. What could cause their absence from the map?
They are absent because __.
51. a strike slip fault along the ridge has moved older rocks further north.
52. older rocks have been subducted underneath the North American Plate
53. rifting has produced metamorphism, which obliterated the old age of the seafloor
54. erosion of the sea floor destroyed rocks older than 12 million years
55. (Question B3, Figure 2.6) The type of plate boundary represented by the red line on the figure is a/n ______ boundary.
56. transform
57. convergent
58. divergent
59. unconformity
60. (Question B4, Figure 2.6) Which of the following best explains the origin of magma that builds Cascade Range volcanoes?
61. As the North American Plate and the Juan de Fuca Plate slide past each other on a horizontal plane, friction produces the heat to generate magma.
62. As the Juan de Fuca plate is rifted apart, lower pressure at the rift produces magma that feeds the volcanoes at the Cascade Range.
63. Subduction of the Juan de Fuca Plate under the North American Plate brings rocks from the ocean floor and marine sediment to depths where partial melting ensues due to the increased temperature and the influence of water.
64. Migration of the North American Plate over a hot spot is responsible for the Cascade Range volcanoes.

The exercises that follow use Google Earth. For each question (or set of questions) paste the location that is given into the “fly to” box. Examine each location at multiple eye altitudes and
differing amounts of tilt. For any measurements use the ruler tool, this can be accessed by clicking on the ruler icon above the image.
Fly to Hawaii. Please review the section on Hotspots and the Hawaiian Islands in the Lab manual and in the unit notes.
Rocks have been dated on each of the Hawaiian Islands and their ages are as follows:
Big Island- 0 (active), Maui – 1.1 million, Kauai- 4.7 million, Nihoa (23 03 32.79N 161 55 11.94W)- 7.2 million years

1. Consider the ages and positions of the islands listed above along with what you know about plate tectonics and hotspots. In what general direction is the Pacific Plate moving?
2. Northwest
3. Southeast
4. Northeast
5. Southwest
6. How fast was the Pacific plate moving during the last 1.1 million years between the formation of the Big Island and Maui in cm/year?
7. ~5 cm/year
8. ~10 cm/year
9. ~15 cm/year
10. ~20 cm/year
11. How fast was the Pacific plate moving from 7.2 million years ago to 4.7 million years ago between the formation of Kauai and Nihao in cm/year?
12. ~5 cm/year
13. ~10 cm/year
14. ~15 cm/year
15. ~20 cm/year
31) Examine the headings of the measurements that you took for the previous two questions. The headings indicate the direction the Pacific Plate is moving over the hot spot. How does the direction of motion of the Pacific Plate during the last 1.1 million years differ from direction of movement between 4.7 and 7.2 million years ago?
The direction of plate movement in the last 1.1 million years________.
16. shows no change
17. has become more northerly
18. has become more southerly
32) Zoom out and examine the dozens of sunken volcanoes out past Nihoa, named the Emperor Seamounts. As one of these volcanic islands on the Pacific Plate moves off the hotspot it becomes inactive, or extinct, and the island begins to sink as it and the surrounding tectonic plate cool down. The speed the islands are sinking can be estimated by measuring the difference in elevation (tilting the image helps to find the highest elevation) between two islands and dividing by the difference in their ages (this method assumes the islands were a similar size when they were active). Using Maui and Nihoa, how fast are the Hawaiian Islands sinking?
19. ~0.05 cm/year
20. ~0.5 cm/year
21. ~5 cm/year
22. ~10 cm/year
33) Using the speed you calculated in the previous question (and ignoring possible changes in sea level), when will the Big Island of Hawaii sink below the surface of the ocean?
23. ~650,000 years
24. ~1.2 million years
25. ~8 million years
26. ~13 million years
34) Examine the Emperor Seamounts and notice that it is a continuous chain that reaches far north to the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Using a speed halfway between that which you calculated in questions 29 and 30, calculate the age of the oldest (furthest North) seamount in the Emperor Seamounts? (Hint 1- using the line mode of the ruler tool will not work since the Pacific Plate had a drastic change in direction, try using the path mode of the ruler tool to give a more accurate distance; Hint 2- Since you know the plate does not move at the same speed over time, the age you estimated will differ from the real age based on radiometric dating, therefore your answer will be different from the one given in the lab manual!).
27. ~30 million years
28. ~45 million years
29. ~60 million years
30. ~75 million years
31. Fly to 15 19 48.78 S 75 12 03.41 W. What type of tectonic plates are present?
32. Ocean- Ocean
33. Ocean- Continent
34. Continent- Continent.
35. What type of plate tectonic boundary is present?
36. Transform
37. Convergent
38. Divergent
39. Fly to 6 21 49.68 S 29 35 37.87 E. What type of process is going on at this location?
41. Continental rifting
42. Subduction
43. What type of plate tectonic boundary is present?
44. Transform
45. Convergent
46. Divergent
47. Fly to 28 04 27.04N 86 55 26.84E. What type of tectonic plates are present?
48. Ocean- Ocean
49. Ocean- Continent
50. Continent- Continent.
51. What type of plate tectonic boundary is present?
52. Transform
53. Convergent
54. Divergent

## Who can do an on line course Introduction to Oceanography

Question 1 (1 point)

Question 2 (1 point)

Question 3 (1 point)

Question 4 (1 point)

Question 5 (1 point)

Note: It is recommended that you save your response as you complete each question.

The largest component by volume of dry air is oxygen.

true

false

Save

If water absorbed all light and did not scatter or reflect it, what color would the the ocean appear when viewed from above?

blue

black

white

red

yellow

Save

If a sound pulse is sent vertically downward into the sea and its reflected echo from the seafloor returns 6 seconds later, the depth of the water is _______ meters.

9,000

12,000

3,000

6,600

4,500

Save

What property of water allows you to place a volume of water in a glass that is greater than the volume of the glass?

compressibility

surface tension

heat capacity

density

viscosity

Save

Imagine an experiment where we uniformly heat three containers, one with water, one with dry sand, one with damp sand. Which one would experience the greatest increase in temperature?

dry sand

it is impossible to tell with the information given

they would all heat up the same amount

damp sand

water

Save

Quiz – Introduction to Oceanography Section N01 Fall Semester 2013 CO… https://westga.view.usg.edu/d2l/lms/quizzing/user/attempt/quiz_attempt…

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Question 6 (1 point)

Question 7 (1 point)

Question 8 (1 point)

Question 9 (1 point)

Question 10 (1 point)

How many calories are required to convert 2 grams of ice at 0 degrees C to water vapor at 100 degrees C?

670

1440

160

2768

1180

Save

Forchhammer’s principle states that the _____________ of dissolved salts per unit volume of ocean water is nearly constant, even though the ________________ may change.

amount, proportion

density, salinity

proportion, amount

quantity, equilibrium

equilibrium, quantity

Save

Approximately what percentage of seawater is dissolved solids?

86

2.5

3.5

none of the above

35

Save

When warm, moist air passes over cold water or a cold earth surface, _____ fog is formed, and heat is transferred from __________. (Hint: don’t panic, combine what you learned about fog with latent heat.)

radiative; water vapor to the surrounding air

radiative; the surrounding air to water vapor

advective; water vapor to the surrounding air

advective; the surrounding air to water vapor

sea smoke; water vapor to the surrounding air

Save

Which of the following is NOT necessary for radiation fog to occur?

Quiz – Introduction to Oceanography Section N01 Fall Semester 2013 CO… https://westga.view.usg.edu/d2l/lms/quizzing/user/attempt/quiz_attempt…

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Question 11 (1 point)

Question 12 (1 point)

Question 13 (1 point)

Question 14 (1 point)

Question 15 (1 point)

no sunshine

little or no cloud cover

light or no surface breeze

cold, wet ground

moisture at ground level

Save

If all the world’s sea ice melted, sea level would

rise

fall

remain the same

you can’t tell from the given information

it depends on the season

Save

If the world’s sea ice melted, sea level would rise.

true

false

Save

A local coastal wind controlled only by daily temperature variation between land and water will blow ______________ during the day.

45 degrees to the right

onshore

45 degrees to the left

offshore

parallel to the shore

Save

What physical property is the driving force of convection cell circulation?

density

energy

calories

heat

viscosity

Save

The amount of energy from the sun entering the earth’s atmosphere

Quiz – Introduction to Oceanography Section N01 Fall Semester 2013 CO… https://westga.view.usg.edu/d2l/lms/quizzing/user/attempt/quiz_attempt…

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Question 16 (1 point)

Question 17 (1 point)

Question 18 (1 point)

Question 19 (1 point)

cannot be measured

is the same across the tropics

does not vary with latitude

is always highest at the equator on the equinoxes

is the same at the Earth’s surface as the top of the atmosphere

Save

Atlantic basin hurricanes move from east to west mainly because of

convection

Coriolis effect

Earth’s rotation

Save

The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the meeting place of what two wind belts?

Save

The average location of the meteorological equator is

23.5 degrees south latitude

coincident with the geographic equator

5 degrees north latitude

23.5 degrees north latitude

5 degrees south latitude

Save

The location labeled “A” most likely experiences

winter dry monsoons

orographic rainfall

summer wet monsoons

landbreezes

Save

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4 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 20 (1 point)

Question 21 (1 point)

Question 22 (1 point)

Question 23 (1 point)

Question 24 (1 point)

Question 25 (1 point)

Daily summer solar radiation levels at polar latitudes are caused by the high intensity of radiation per unit surface area rather than by long periods of daylight.

true

false

Save

Why is more heat energy absorbed from the sun in the tropics than at the poles?

land masses are larger in the tropics

there is more water in the tropics

there is a higher angle of incidence of solar rays in the tropics

there is a lower angle of incidence of solar rays in the tropics

there is more cloud cover at the poles

Save

The tropics are warmer than the poles because there is more incoming solar radiation at low latitudes than at high latitudes.

true

false

Save

The weather systems across the United States move from west to east mainly because of

Earth’s rotation

convection

Coriolis effect

Save

A wind blowing from Miami to New York would be called a ____________ wind.

west

east

hurricane

north

south

Save

The accompanying diagram shows the conditions during what phenomenon and what season?

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5 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 26 (1 point)

Question 27 (1 point)

Question 28 (1 point)

La Niña summer

Normal or neutral conditions

El Niño summer

El Niño winter

La Niña winter

Save

The cause of the decrease in primary productivity during El Niño is

Carbon dioxide levels too high

Major upwelling of nutrients

Decreased upwelling of nutrients

Increased oxygenation of surface water

Decreased downwelling of nutrients

Save

The accompanying diagram shows the conditions during what phenomenon and what season?

La Niña winter

La Niña summer

El Niño winter

El Niño summer

Normal or neutral conditions

Save

During La Niña, sea level in the western Pacific is __________ than during El Niño.

higher

lower

variable

the same as

Save

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6 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 29 (1 point)

Question 30 (1 point)

Question 31 (1 point)

Question 32 (1 point)

Question 33 (1 point)

The Southern Oscillation Index

is essentially a mirror image of sea surface temperature

shows the trend of atmospheric pressure differences between Tahiti and Darwin, Australia

shows the “SO” in “ENSO”

is one measure of the large-scale fluctuations in air pressure occurring between the western and eastern tropical Pacific

each of the choices is correct

Save

The atmospheric convection cell associated with the El Niño phenomenon is

Southern Oscillation

Walker Circulation

Doldrums

Jet Stream

Save

The feature labeled “F” is _________ _____________ during an El Niño.

an ocean current. It moves to the east

the thermocline. It occurs deeper in the eastern Pacific Ocean

convection. It forms further east

upwelling. It may get “shut off” by the layer of warm water above it

normal circulation. The surface winds (trade winds) may reverse

the warm pool. It starts to spread eastward when the trade winds slacken

Save

The “barometric effect” accounts for about _______ increase in storm surge level for every 1 millibar drop in air pressure associated with a hurricane.

1 inch

1 foot

1 centimeter

1 meter

10 meters

Save

You are watching the evening news with your family and hear reports of a tropical cyclone hitting Australia. You can confidently tell your family that the winds in the storm are rotating __________.

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7 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 34 (1 point)

Question 35 (1 point)

to the left

to the right

clockwise

counterclockwise

forward

Save

Maximum wind speed in a hurricane occurs

at sea level

in the Caribbean

in the eye wall

in the eye

Save

The areas in red are common zones of hurricane formation. There no (or very few) hurricanes formed in the area labeled “A.” Why?

coriolis effect moves hurricanes away from “A”

downwelling makes the water warm

monsoons interfere with hurricane formation there

upwelling usually makes the surface water too cold for hurricanes to form

the trade winds knock the tops off hurricanes there

Save

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8 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 36 (1 point)

Question 37 (1 point)

Question 38 (1 point)

Storm surges

result from the very high atmospheric pressures associated with hurricanes

only form at high tides

only form at low tides

occurs on the back side of hurricanes

may be amplified by concave shorelines and broad shallow continental shelves

Save

Storm surge is a theoretical still-water level. Storm waves are in addition to the storm surge.

true

false

Save

As the hurricane approaches land, which directions are the winds at City B?

alongshore

down

offshore

up

onshore

Save

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9 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 39 (1 point)

Question 40 (1 point)

Question 41 (1 point)

Question 42 (1 point)

Of these properties, which is the most important in controlling the density of water?

none of these is more important than the others

heat capacity

temperature

salinity

pressure

Save

What drives the ocean conveyor system?

density

salinity

pressure

temperature

upwelling

Save

Which of the following processes can cause surface seawater to increase in density?

sea ice formation

sea ice melting

surface water evaporation

both sea ice formation and surface water evaporation

both sea ice melting and surface water evaporation

Save

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10 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 43 (1 point)

Using the labeled latitudes A-E, where would you likely find higher than average sea surface salinity?

A only

C only

E only

C and E

D only

Save

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11 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 44 (1 point)

Using the labeled latitudes A-E, where is air sinking on a global atmospheric scale?

D only

C only

A, C, and E

A only

C and E

Save

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12 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 45 (1 point)

Using the labeled latitudes A-E, where would you likely find lower than average sea surface salinity?

A only

B only

B and D

C and E

D only

Save

The water mass having both high salinity and warm temperature and found at about 1,000 meters water depth in the central north Atlantic has been formed

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13 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 46 (1 point)

Question 47 (1 point)

in equatorial regions

in the Red Sea

in the Mediterranean Sea

near Greenland

in the Caribbean Sea

Save

The water layer region between 100-1,000 meters where temperature changes rapidly with depth is known as a(n)

halocline

thermocline

pycnocline

thermohaline

isopycnal

Save

The temperature plot labeled “A” is characteristic of ocean temperature in what area?

r

temperate latitudes

the south pole

tropical latitudes

high latitudes

Save

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14 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 48 (1 point)

Question 49 (1 point)

Question 50 (1 point)

Question 51 (1 point)

Which term does not belong when describing major upweling off of the western coast of South America?

convection

surface divergence

La Nina

wind

continuity

Save

On this representation of the waters adjacent to the east coast of the United States, the letter “C” indicates

warm core ring(s)

cold core ring(s)

color for cold water

the Gulf Stream

color for warm water

Save

Ekman transport associated with the doldrums creates the

intermediate water

subtropical divergence

Sargasso convergence

tropical divergence

dispersion

Save

Which of the following describes the pattern of the North Atlantic gyre.

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15 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 52 (1 point)

Question 53 (1 point)

Question 54 (1 point)

Question 55 (1 point)

it circulates counterclockwise

at latitude 10-15 degrees it is driven westward by the northeast trade winds

it is centered over the equator

at latitude 10-15 degrees it is driven westward by the prevailing westerlies

it stops circulating at night

Save

Circulation of both the atmosphere and the oceans is driven by what type of currents?

parallel

surface

convection

downwelled

divergent

Save

The energy for driving ocean surface currents is ultimately derived from

plate tectonics

gravity

the sun

density

Save

Large scale ocean surface currents

are put into motion by the rotation of the earth

are deflected by the same coriolis effect as the atmosphere

change rapidly with daily weather changes

move at the same velocity as the winds that drive them

do not exist

Save

The only ocean surface current to completely encircle the globe is the

West Wind Drift

Gulf Stream

Canary Current

Equatorial Countercurrent

North Atlantic Drift

Save

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16 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 56 (1 point)

Question 57 (1 point)

Question 58 (1 point)

Question 59 (1 point)

Question 60 (1 point)

Another name for wind-driven circulation is _______________________

density-driven circulation

gyres

Coriolis effect

friction-driven circulation

thermohaline circulation

Save

When waves arrive at monitoring stations set up long distances from a storm center, which waves arrive first?

long wavelength waves

short wavelength waves

steeper waves

internal waves

capillary waves

Save

How does wave group speed compare to celerity?

group speed is twice that of celerity

they are not related

group speed is one-half of celerity

celerity is one-half of group speed

they are equal

Save

When a wave trough is passing by a given point, water particles are moving

forward

backward

up

down

sideways

Save

Which type of breaking waves are the best to surf on?

pushing breakers

surging breakers

spilling breakers

collapsing breakers

plunging breakers

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17 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 61 (1 point)

Question 62 (1 point)

Question 63 (1 point)

Question 64 (1 point)

Question 65 (1 point)

Save

The photo shows channels running from shore seaward cutting across the surf zone. These are probably formed by

shallow water waves

reflected waves

refracted waves

rip currents

internal waves

Save

What, ultimatley, is the source of all wind waves on earth?

wind

currents

gravity

the sun

the moon

Save

The orbital motion of a shallow water wave extends to a water depth equal to

twice the wavelength

one-half the vavelength

one-half the wave height

the water depth

the wave’s height

Save

At the coast, wave refraction results in wave energy being concentrated _______ and dispersed ________.

in deep water; behind breakwaters

in shallow water; in deep water

in deep water; in shallow water

Save

Energy moving through water along a pycnocline would best be described as

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18 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 66 (1 point)

Question 67 (1 point)

a boundary wave

a counter current

a convection current

an internal wave

a rip current

Save

The arrows labeled “A” point to ___________ of a standing wave.

the length

the troughs

the nodes

the crests

the antinodes

Save

Which of the following is not a generating force of tsunamis?

submarine landslide

tides

submarine volcano

wind

earthquake

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19 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 68 (1 point)

Question 69 (1 point)

Question 70 (1 point)

Save

The dashed lines labeled “B” on the accompanying figure are known as

precession lines

cotidal lines

declination lines

corange lines

Coriolis lines

Save

Diurnal tides complete how many tidal cycle(s) per day?

one

two

three

one, but only at low latitudes

none, it takes a month to complete a tidal cycle

Save

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20 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 71 (1 point)

The island at position “C” is experiencing what kind of tide?

higher low tide

lower low tide

higher high tide

lower high tide

low tide, but you can’t tell if it’s lower or higher

Save

The tidal bulge at “A” is created by

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21 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 72 (1 point)

Question 73 (1 point)

Question 74 (1 point)

both centrifugal force and gravitational attraction

gravitational attraction

centrifugal force

Earth’s rotation

the sun

Save

If the high tide of a diurnal tide occurs at 10:00 AM one day, approximately when will the next high tide occur?

10:25 PM the same day

10:50 AM the next day

10:00 AM the next day

10:00 PM the same day

10:25 AM the next day

Save

If a high tide of a semidiurnal tide occurs at 10:00 AM, approximately when will the next high tide occur?

10:25 PM the same day

10:50 AM the next day

10:00 AM the next day

10:00 PM the same day

10:25 AM the next day

Save

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22 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 75 (1 point)

Question 76 (1 point)

The accompanying diagram shows shoreline features characteristic of erosional coasts. Letter “C” indicates what feature?

sandy beaches

sea cave

blowhole

sea stack

sea arch

marine terrace

wave-cut platform

Save

The zone from outer limit of wave action to landward limit of wave influence is ___?

the beach shore coastal zone tide area coastal region

Save

Sections of the coast delineated by input of sediment from a river on one end and loss of sediment down a submarine canyon on the other end, are known as ____________. They are common in California.

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Question 77 (1 point)

Question 78 (1 point)

Question 79 (1 point)

Question 80 (1 point)

active margins

compartments

fairweather beaches

high tide shorelines

passive margins

Save

Coastal sediment cells on active continental margins often terminate at

submarine canyons

turbidity currents

the high tide line

the low tide line

at the winter berm

Save

Which of the following is not a feature of an erosional coast?

wave-cut platform

sea arch

sea cliff

sea stack

spit

Save

The net flow of sand along the east coast of the United States is mainly

east to west

west to east

north to south

south to north

offshore

Save

The shallow water area from the breaker zone to the edge of the continental shelf is referred to as the:

backshore

foreshore

offshore

berm

backwash

Save

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24 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 81 (1 point)

Question 82 (1 point)

Question 83 (1 point)

Question 84 (1 point)

Question 85 (1 point)

Sea stacks, barrier islands, and reefs are three examples of:

primary coasts

marine processes

dunes

secondary coasts

erosional coasts

Save

Which of the following offers evidence of barrier island migration?

salt marsh mud found on the beach

oyster shells on the beach on the front of islands

trees on the island

each of the choices is correct

both salt marsh mud found on the beach and oyster shells on the beach on the front of islands

Save

What are two key characteristics fundamental to understanding barrier islands?

Sea Walls and Groins

Slope and Ebb Tide

Coastal Zone and Sea Stack

Tidal inlets and Sediment

Movement and Change

Save

The net flow of sand moves in a certain direction. What is the direction in which the net flow of sand moves along Georgia’s coast?

Closest towards the Equator

Northwest to Southeast

South to North

West to East

North to South

Save

Today, the shells of sound welling oysters are found on the beach due to the fact that the _________ use to be there.

Sediment

Crabs

Sound

Sun

Waves

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25 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 86 (1 point)

Question 87 (1 point)

Question 88 (1 point)

Question 89 (1 point)

Question 90 (1 point)

Save

Ordinarily, people would build their houses around the island. Although, they did place their houses on the back side of the island so ______ would protect them from winds and floods.

The forest

The high valley

The low part of the valley

The shallow creeks that ran behind

The shelters they were required to build behind their homes

Save

Which is not a good way to try to preserve a beach? (Hint: Has lead to turmoil for New Jersey).

Developing Dunes

Relocation

Soft Stabilization

Hard Stabilization

Formation of spits

Save

Fan-shaped sediment deposits on both the oceanside and back side of tidal inlets are called

submarine fans

jetties

sand bars

tidal deltas

turbidity currents

Save

We remember the work of Charles Darwin in oceanography primarily because of his study of

marine reptiles

surface currents

evolution

finches

coral reefs

Save

Who was the Naval officer who organized worldwide data on currents, water depths, ocean temperatures, and so forth, and wrote The Physical Geography of the Sea, the first significant book of oceanography?

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26 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 91 (1 point)

Question 92 (1 point)

Question 93 (1 point)

Question 94 (1 point)

Matthew Maury

Charles Darwin

Wyville Thomson

Timothy Folger

Prince Henry

Save

The individual most responsible for the great age of European discovery beginning early in the 15th century was

Christopher Columbus

Ferdinand Magellan

Sir Martin Frobisher

Amerigo Vespucci

Prince Henry the Navigator

Save

The Vikings were responsible for

colonization of Iceland and Greenland

superior ship building skills

each of the choices is correct

longer voyages

Save

The average depth of the oceans is about

11,000 meters

120 meters

3,800 meters

3,800 kilometers

3,800 miles

Save

One degree of longitude is equal to approximately how much time?

four hours

four minutes

one minute

15 hours

one hour

Save

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27 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 95 (1 point)

Question 96 (1 point)

Question 97 (1 point)

Question 98 (1 point)

One degree of longitude is equal to approximately how much time?

one minute

one hour

four hours

four minutes

15 hours

Save

Let’s say you set your chonometer to Greenwich time and leave jolly old England on holiday. You notice on your travels one day that when the sun is directly overhead (your local noon), that your chonometer reads exactly 2 PM. What is your exact longitude?

0 degrees

15 degrees west

15 degrees east

30 degrees west

30 degrees east

Save

What type of map is this?

physiographic

it’s a nautical chart, not a map

topographic

bathymetric

contour

Save

The average depth of the ocean on Earth is

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28 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 99 (1 point)

Question 100 (1 point)

Question 101 (1 point)

Question 102 (1 point)

840 meters

1122

2646

2404

3729

Save

Where plates are pushing toward each other (converging), which features may be formed?

oceanic trench and continent

ocean and continent

ridge and oceanic trench

mountain chain and oceanic trench

continent and mountain chain

Save

Mt. St. Helens volcanism is associated with

an ocean-ocean convergence plate boundary

an continent-continent convergence plate boundary

an ocean-continent convergence plate boundary

a divergent plate boundary

a transform plate boundary

Save

Name one place where the mid-ocean ridge comes up on land.

the San Andreas Fault

the Andes Mountains

the Aleutian Island arc

Iceland

the Himalaya Mountains

Save

During subduction, oceanic plates under continents can partially melt and mix with contiental crust to form volcanoes made up of an intermediate rock type called

magma

lithosphere

andesite

basalt

granite

Save

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29 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 103 (1 point)

Question 104 (1 point)

Question 105 (1 point)

Question 106 (1 point)

Question 107 (1 point)

What is the name given to a seamount that is eroded flat in shallow water and then moved into deep water by sea floor spreading?

guyot

atoll

rift

ridge

trench

Save

What do the location and orientation of the Hawaiian Island and Emperor Seamount chains tell us about the history of motion of the Pacific Plate?

that it has moved southeast for over 70 million years

that it has moved to the northwest for over 100 million years

that it has been fixed in place for over 200 million years

that it has moved almost due north for over 70 million years

that around 40 million years ago it changed from almost northward to northwestward motion

Save

The oldest oceanic crust is approximately __________ years old.

4.6 billion

15 billion

1 thousand

50 million

250 million

Save

Continental shelves on trailing margins of continents are

all of the choices are correct

gently sloping

often have large rivers

none of the choices are correct

Save

Changes in sea level alternately flood and expose the edges of continents. What is the primary control on sea-level changes?

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30 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 108 (1 point)

Question 109 (1 point)

Question 110 (1 point)

Question 111 (1 point)

Question 112 (1 point)

changes in ocean salinity

changes in depth of the continental margins

changes in height of the continental margins

changes in ice sheet volume

mountain building

Save

On average, the continental margin is about ________ miles wide and ________ meters deep.

100, 400

400, 100

40, 120

120, 40

1000, 1000

Save

Continental shelves on trailing (passive) continental margins are:

often have large rivers

each of the choices is correct

gently sloping

Save

The general name for the deepest portion of any basin is

a sounding

a seamount

a deep

a profundity

a trench

Save

We know that 71% of Earth’s surface is covered by ocean, but what percent of Earth’s crust is oceanic?

29

71

34

98

66

Save

The widest continental shelves in the world are located in:

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31 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 113 (1 point)

Question 114 (1 point)

Question 115 (1 point)

Australia in the South Pacific Ocean

India the Indian Ocean

Brazil in the South Atlantic Ocean

Siberia in the Arctic Ocean

Japan in the North Pacific Ocean

Save

In the accompanying photomicrograph, letter “D” indicates which type of calcareous marine microorganism?

coccolithophore (single)

coccoliths (individual plates)

coccolithophores (multiple)

foraminifers

diatom (siliceous)

Save

Which of the following are calcareous plants?

diatoms

ooids

foraminifera

coccoliths

Save

Poorly sorted sediment deposits containing rock fragments in a fine-grained matrix that might conjure images of Alfred Wegener are called

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32 of 34 11/20/2013 3:24 PM

Question 116 (1 point)

Question 117 (1 point)

Question 118 (1 point)

Question 119 (1 point)

lutites

stalactites

breccias

melanges

diamictites

Save

Where on the ocean floor would you be most likely to find sediment dominated by foraminifera?

below the CCD

in the deepest parts of ocean basins

beneath warm waters

in shallower portions of ocean basins

beneath cold waters

Save

Sediments found on continental shelves, are derived from land and ocean sources, and which may accumulate very rapidly are classified as ________ sediments.

pelagic

cosmogenous

lithogenous

neritic

hydrogenous

Save

What is the name of the type of fine-grained biogenous sediment consisting primarily of dead single-celled marine organisms that have settled to the bottom the ocean.

turbidites

ooids

lithogenous

manganese nodules

ooze

Save

In the accompanying photomicrograph, the organisms labeled E fit all of the following descriptions except ___.

foraminifers

coccoliths (individual plates)

coccolithophores (multiple)

diatom (siliceous)

coccolithophore (single)

Save

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Question 120 (1 point)

On the bar graph in the accompanying diagram, bar “C” corresponds to which type of sediment?

abyssal clay

ooliths

siliceous ooze

manganese nodules

calcareous ooze

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Quiz – Introduction to Oceanography Section N01 Fall Semester 2013 CO… https://westga.view.usg.edu/d2l/lms/quizzing/user/attempt/quiz_attempt…

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## The Control Of Nature

Write an essay in response to the following statement. It should be typed and double-spaced and a maximum of four pages. Please edit the essay for grammatical and stylistic errors. In The Control of Nature, John McPhee carefully documents our attempt to control the lower Mississippi River and the debris sliding out of the San Gabriel Mountains into the Los Angeles basin. McPhee explains how we have done these things, and in some cases why we have done these things, but he rarely comments on if we should have done these things. Your task is to decide that one of these attempts (either LA or Louisiana) makes sense, and we should continue our efforts. Construct an argument in support of your conclusion. Then, argue that the other case (LA if you used Louisiana before, and vice versa) does not make sense and we should cease our efforts. Use as many specific examples from the book as you can to support your arguments.