Discussion Board Bioreaction Question

Discussion Board Bioreaction Question
 

Your submission must be your original work. No more than a combined total of 30% of the submission and no more than a 10% match to any one individual source can be directly quoted or closely paraphrased from sources, even if cited correctly. An originality report is provided when you submit your task that can be used as a guide.
You must use the rubric to direct the creation of your submission because it provides detailed criteria that will be used to evaluate your work. Each requirement below may be evaluated by more than one rubric aspect. The rubric aspect titles may contain hyperlinks to relevant portions of the course. 
Select a conversation where you had a disagreement that had an impact on you and triggered a bioreaction. The conversation could have been a long time ago or recently.Discussion Board Bioreaction Question
A.  Explain what happened during the disagreement by answering the following questions:
•  Describe the situation that led to the conversation.
•  When did you realize that there was a disagreement during the conversation?
•  Describe a bioreaction(s) that was experienced during the disagreement.
•  How did the conversation end?

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B.  Analyze the conversation by answering the following questions:
•  Using the four levels of the conversation meter, what level were you listening at, and what level was the other person listening at?
•  Give examples of two factors that describe how you and they were listening in at these levels in the conversation meter: feelings, behaviors, language, or tone.
•  What were your points of alignment or disagreement?
C.  Reflect on how the conversation encouraged you to listen differently by answering the following questions:
•  How could you have listened differently moving up the conversation meter, and what effect would that have had on the disagreement?
•  How could you incorporate listening for needs, purpose, or concern to create value in the conversation (including describing what that would look like)?
•  What have you learned about accuracy and authenticity that could be used to improve the conversation?
D.  Demonstrate professional communication in the content and presentation of your submission.

Discussion Board Bioreaction Question

 
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Insular Cortex Interrupt Drug-seeking Behaviors Essay

Insular Cortex Interrupt Drug-seeking Behaviors Essay

  1. The insular cortex is thought to be      involved in compassion and empathy, taste, perception, motor control,      self-awareness, cognitive functioning, and interpersonal experience. In      this paper, the focus is its role in substance abuse. Which of these is not mentioned by the authors in explaining      the link between the insular cortex and drug-seeking behaviors?

 
lesions in the   insular cortex interrupt drug-seeking behaviors
individuals with   substance abuse history showed reduced activity in the insular cortex
there are no   drug-related receptors in the insular cortex
the anterior   agranular insula subregion contains dopamine and opioid receptors
10 points   
QUESTION 2

  1. The authors used 35 day      old rats because

 
35 days is   adolescent, when initial drug exposure occurs often in humans
 
35 days corresponds   to the age at which rats in the wild begin buying drugs
 
Rats do not develop   an insular cortex until 30 days
 
The rat brain has   no insular cortex so it doesn’t matter
10 points   
QUESTION 3

  1. How did limited and      extended  intravenous self-administration training differ? Insular Cortex Interrupt Drug-seeking Behaviors Essay .

 
10 points   
QUESTION 4

  1. Did pressing the lever      during a test result in a predictable delivery of cocaine or an      unpredictable dose? Why do you think it was done this way?

 
10 points   
QUESTION 5

  1. Did cocaine-seeking      behaviors increase or decrease on withdrawal day 45, relative to      withdrawal day 1? Did this effect depend on the amount or duration of      prior cocaine use (that is, limited or extended)?

 
10 points   
QUESTION 6

  1. An action potential      occurs when the membrane potential of a specific cell location rapidly      rises and falls; this is an essential part of neuron signaling.
    What is meant by  rise time, decay time, half‐amplitude duration ,      and amplitude of action potentials? Insular Cortex Interrupt Drug-seeking Behaviors Essay .

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10 points   
QUESTION 7

  1. How are the rise time,      decay time, half‐amplitude duration, and amplitude of action potentials in      pyramidal neurons of the insular cortex affected by cocaine training?

 

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10 points   
QUESTION 8

  1. When a depolarizing      current is injected into a nerve cell, the resultant decrease in the      membrane potential activates voltage-dependent Na+ channels. The      activation of the Na+ channels in turn accelerates the depolarization      process, producing the rising phase of the action potential.
    This causes the neuron to fire, or spike.
    Injecting depolarizing current is done to assess whether the sensitivity      of a neuron is changed by a procedure (which would be measurable as a      change in the spike rate of the neuron).
    In this paper, would you say that cocaine administration was shown to      alter the sensitivity of insula pyramidal neurons to stimulation? Why or      why not?

10 points   
QUESTION 9

  1. For any given neuron,      there is also a threshold of action potential. What does that mean?
  2. Is the action potential      threshold shown to be changed by limited or extended cocaine training? How      do you know this? Insular Cortex Interrupt Drug-seeking Behaviors Essay .

 
10 points   
QUESTION 11

  1. It is generally thought      that extended drug exposure has more robust effects on drug‐seeking and      drug‐taking behaviors than limited use. Does this study support or      contradict this bit of conventional wisdom? How?

10 points   
QUESTION 12

  1. In this model, rats      learn that pressing a lever is rewarded with an injection of cocaine.      However, some rats with a history of extended training seem not to press      the lever. What might explain this?

 
10 points   
QUESTION 13

  1. What is the main      difference (as the authors describe it) between the methods of this study      and those of other rat cocaine studies? Insular Cortex Interrupt Drug-seeking Behaviors Essay.
 
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Cellular Respiration Paper

Cellular Respiration Paper

Topic: This week we covered the details of Cellular Respiration. Your assignment this week is in two parts. Using Excel (or some other Table creating program) create a table that describes the four sub-steps of cellular respiration. Insert the table into a Word document and provide a discussion of how each sub part contributes to overall process of cellular respiration. Cellular Respiration Paper.

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Assignment Expectations:

  • Minimum of 1000-1250 words, not including the Title or References pages (typed, 12 point font, double spaced).
  • Required Table must be included in the essay.
  • The Table must contain these headings: Sub-step reactants, Sub-step products, ATP contribution by sub-step, Cellular location of sub-step.
  • Support your content with at least (3) citations. Make sure to reference the citations using APA writing style for the presentation.

Format:

  1. Save your assignment as a Microsoft Word File

Cellular Respiration Paper
 

 
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Human Physiology Paper

Human Physiology Paper
Need this done with professor plagiarism report. WIll pay well, must be done in 3 days. I will provide a sample paper too once I accept a bid
DESCRIPTION You are the lead scientist on a pharmaceutical research & development (R&D) team that has developed a new drug to treat disease. As the principal investigator you will write a short paper on the design and efficacy (effectiveness) of the new pharmacological product. Although the drug is imaginary, it must be targeted against a known disease. You can select a pathological condition that affects the physiology of at least one of the following systems: Human Physiology Paper.
• Nervous/Neuromuscular/Muscle
• Endocrine
• Cardiovascular
• Respiratory
• Gastrointestinal
• Urinary
The paper must contain the following components:
1. Name of the drug. You can be creative with the invented name but it should relate to the function of the product, e.g., Inhibitol (if the drug has an inhibitory effect on its target)

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2. Paper Title. Again, originality is encouraged but the title must contain the product name and the disease condition it treats.
3. Pathophysiology. This is the research component of the paper. The cause(s) (etiology), symptoms and effects of the disease should be adequately described. The pathophysiology of your selected illness must include a description of the disease mechanism on a molecular level (participant biomolecules such as enzymes, receptors, hormones, neurotransmitters, etc.). This part of the paper should be well referenced primarily using scientific/medical literature. Avoid citing websites such as WebMD, although government agency websites such as the NIH, CDC, WHO, etc. are permitted.
4. Drug Design & Efficacy. How does your invented drug work to effectively treat the disease condition? Your description should be consistent with molecular mechanisms of the disease and should involve ligand-based binding to principal targets implicated in the process.
5. Side Effects. Based on the biomolecule(s) targeted by the designed drug, you should be able predict possible side effects, e.g., Inhibitol inhibits the activity of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase at neuromuscular junctions. This increases the amount and duration of ACh in the NMJ, which helps to improve muscle signaling in myasthenia gravis but may cause spastic paralysis due to neurotransmitter overabundance. Side effects should relate to the specific activity of your drug.
Your paper should be 3 – 4 pages in length (min: 3, max: 4) typed, 1.5-spaced 12-pt font. A bibliography is REQUIRED and is not included in your page count. Do not add cover pages, photos, charts or diagrams to your paper. This is an assessment of your original writing  . Human Physiology Paper.

 
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Case Study IV – Endocrine System

Case Study IV – Endocrine System
Case Study IV – Endocrine System ! Diabetes: Mr. Clarks is a 52-year-old African American male, presenting to his primary care physician with complains of frequent urination, excessive thirst, particularly in the late afternoon and early evening. He is a truck driver that works 12 hours each day. The patient confirms a family history of diabetes from both parents. He is 6ft 3inches tall and weighs 280 lbs. His past medical history includes hypertension and high cholesterol. A random finger stick results in a blood glucose level of 243 mg/dL. The physician sends him for more blood work and he learns that Mr. Clark’s HgA1c is 9.1% and fasting glucose is 132 mg/dL. His renal function is within normal limits and liver function tests are also within normal limits.

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Questions:
1- What goes wrong with the feedback loop once the body can no longer keep it under control? Case Study IV – Endocrine System
2-  What can Mr. Clark do to improve his lifestyle and health habits?
Case Study IV – Endocrine System ! Diabetes: Mr. Clarks is a 52-year-old African American male, presenting to his primary care physician with complains of frequent urination, excessive thirst, particularly in the late afternoon and early evening. He is a truck driver that works 12 hours each day. The patient confirms a family history of diabetes from both parents. He is 6ft 3inches tall and weighs 280 lbs. His past medical history includes hypertension and high cholesterol. A random finger stick results in a blood glucose level of 243 mg/dL. The physician sends him for more blood work and he learns that Mr. Clark’s HgA1c is 9.1% and fasting glucose is 132 mg/dL. His renal function is within normal limits and liver function tests are also within normal limits.
Questions:
1- What goes wrong with the feedback loop once the body can no longer keep it under control?
2-  What can Mr. Clark do to improve his lifestyle and health habits?
Case Study IV – Endocrine System
 

 
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Human Physiology Paper Sample

Human Physiology Paper Sample
Need this done with professor plagiarism report. WIll pay well, must be done in 3 days. I will provide a sample paper too once I accept a bid
DESCRIPTION You are the lead scientist on a pharmaceutical research & development (R&D) team that has developed a new drug to treat disease. As the principal investigator you will write a short paper on the design and efficacy (effectiveness) of the new pharmacological product. Although the drug is imaginary, it must be targeted against a known disease. You can select a pathological condition that affects the physiology of at least one of the following systems:Human Physiology Paper Sample

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 • Nervous/Neuromuscular/Muscle
• Endocrine
• Cardiovascular
• Respiratory
• Gastrointestinal
• Urinary
The paper must contain the following components:
1. Name of the drug. You can be creative with the invented name but it should relate to the function of the product, e.g., Inhibitol (if the drug has an inhibitory effect on its target)
2. Paper Title. Again, originality is encouraged but the title must contain the product name and the disease condition it treats.
3. Pathophysiology. This is the research component of the paper. The cause(s) (etiology), symptoms and effects of the disease should be adequately described. The pathophysiology of your selected illness must include a description of the disease mechanism on a molecular level (participant biomolecules such as enzymes, receptors, hormones, neurotransmitters, etc.). This part of the paper should be well referenced primarily using scientific/medical literature. Avoid citing websites such as WebMD, although government agency websites such as the NIH, CDC, WHO, etc. are permitted. Human Physiology Paper Sample
4. Drug Design & Efficacy. How does your invented drug work to effectively treat the disease condition? Your description should be consistent with molecular mechanisms of the disease and should involve ligand-based binding to principal targets implicated in the process.
5. Side Effects. Based on the biomolecule(s) targeted by the designed drug, you should be able predict possible side effects, e.g., Inhibitol inhibits the activity of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase at neuromuscular junctions. This increases the amount and duration of ACh in the NMJ, which helps to improve muscle signaling in myasthenia gravis but may cause spastic paralysis due to neurotransmitter overabundance. Side effects should relate to the specific activity of your drug.
Your paper should be 3 – 4 pages in length (min: 3, max: 4) typed, 1.5-spaced 12-pt font. A bibliography is REQUIRED and is not included in your page count. Do not add cover pages, photos, charts or diagrams to your paper. This is an assessment of your original writing Human Physiology Paper Sample

 
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Week 4 Discussion: Controlling Microbial Growth

Week 4 Discussion: Controlling Microbial Growth

1818 unread replies.1818 replies.

Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

  • Textbook: Chapters 12, 13
  • Weekly Concepts

Initial Prompt Instructions

You will be the expert: Imagine you are teaching a class on controlling microbial growth in the environment. To test your students, you will present them with a scenario including a site and some probably microbes present. They must design a strategy to eliminate harmful microbes from the area.
In this discussion, each student should present a scenario for analysis by his or her classmates, and propose an answer to another classmate’s scenario. Be as creative as you can!
Make sure to post at least two high quality posts. Your instructor will open new topics of discussion throughout the week.

Follow-Up Post Instructions

Respond to at least one peer or the instructor. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.

Writing Requirements

  • Minimum of 2 posts (1 initial & 1 follow-up)
  • Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside source)
  • APA format for in-text citations and list of references Week 4 Discussion: Controlling Microbial Growth

answer1:
Hello Class,
Scenario of a contaminated site may be any place that is untidy and humid. For example, the water collected in the soil or in cooler or at any place for longer time may act as a perfect home for numerous microbes like bacteria, fungi, protozoa and algae. The water collected from such a place can be tested in lab for the presence of microbes. Any stale food item can be a home of microbes. Mud collected from the moist ground can also have microbes in addition to mud particles. Harmful microbes can be disease causing microbes.
Now these harmful microbes can be eliminated by various methods: The place can be dried off by giving sunlight, Food items can be prevented from contamination by boiling or cooling. For example the milk, food items and vegetables can be kept fresh by boiling or by keeping in freeze. According to Singh (2017), pasteurization is also a technique of heating foods and then suddenly cooling them to eradicate microbes from them. Many food items we preserve at home in form of pickles and sauce by dipping them in oil or by dipping them in excessive salt or sugar. Excessive salt or sugar removes extra water present in them, that may spoil them in long run.

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Antibiotic medicines that we ingest when we get infection, eradicate microbes from the body.
Answer 2:
Hello Class and Professor,
A good scenario for this assignment is a hospital room, particularly the curtains and bed sheets. These contaminated surfaces serve as a “vehicle for cross-contamination and transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROS) such as Clostridium, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and more” (Pyrek, 2018, p.1). Week 4 Discussion: Controlling Microbial Growth Studies have shown that “microorganisms shed by patients can contaminate hospital surfaces at concentrations sufficient for transmission, and that these pathogens survive and persist for extended periods despite attempts to disinfect or remove them and can be transferred to the hands of healthcare personnel” (Pyrek, 2018, p.1). Although the CDC around the world has certain guidelines for contaminated surfaces, optimal water temperature, drying time and a certain process flow, this can be difficult to achieve in healthcare facilities and homes. Surveys going around different healthcare facilities asked how often they change the curtains. Some locations said only when visibly soiled, some every month, some only when a patient is being discharged, and some locations every three months. There was another study done at a burn unit at a Canadian hospital. The study “tracked the contamination rate of 10 freshly laundered privacy curtains” (Pyrek, 2018, p.2). The curtains had minimal contamination when they were first hung and after hanging there for awhile in patient’s rooms, they became increasingly contaminated over time” (Pyrek, 2018). By  “day 14, 87.5 percent of the curtains tested positive for MRSA” (Pyrek, 2018, p.2). Cross contamination to and from the curtains are increased with patients that have open wounds on their body. Laundry processors have often relied on recommendations from the CDC which are “The antimicrobial action of the laundering process results from a combination of mechanical, thermal, and chemical factors. Dilution and agitation in water remove substantial qualities of microorganisms. Detergents and surfactants function to suspend soils, reduce water surface tension, and also exhibit some microbicidal properties” (Pyrek, 2018, p.3). Hospitals may be one of the safest places to be, but definitely not the cleanest! Week 4 Discussion: Controlling Microbial Growth

 
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Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Lou Gehrig’s Disease

Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Lou Gehrig’s Disease

The post should be at least 100 words and be substantive in nature. While pleasantries such as “I agree” or “great job” are nice, they will not count as one of your required posts.
Jessica Larochelle
Week 3 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Lou Gehrig’s Disease
A problem that occurs with the nervous system that I have choses is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig’s Disease. ALS is a disease that deterioates the nerve cells of the spinal cord, and the brain (www.hopkinsmedicine.org). It slows down and eventually stops the signal from the brain to the spinal cord, which then stops the spinal cord from sending a signal for muscle movement. Some of the early symptoms include: cramping of the muscle, loss of movement in the arms and legs, slurred speech, falling or tripping. As the disease progresses the symptoms become more harsh like: No movement in the arms or legs ( paralysis), trouble swallowing, trouble breathing, and can’t talk/use words to communicate. Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Lou Gehrig’s Disease

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     As of today, ALS has no cure, and no proven treatments to cure this disease. There is treatments that can make the disease less painful or the quality of life a little more enjoyable like, physical therapy (in moderation to try and keep muscles active), heat pads to help with cramping of muscles, and medicine such as, valium (to help with anxiety). There are two main types of ALS: Sporadic and Familia. Sporadic ALS consists from 90 to 95 percent of all ALS cases diagnosed each year. Making this disease not a heriditary disease. Though there are a small amount of cases that more than one person in a family gets diagnosed with ALS making it Familia type, and it is not very common (www.hopkinsmedicine.org). The cause for ALS is not yet known, and affects all races of people, and is seen mostly from people around the age of 40 to 70.
I do have personal experience with ALS. My father was having weird symptoms with the way he walked (like a robot) at the age of 58 in 2017. Said it feels like his calve muscles wouldn’t contract. So he walked like he was marching. He seen a doctor, couldn’t find anything wrong with him, and sent him home. So for the next year he had test done. After a year of test, and the doctors still couldn’t find anything wrong, they diagnosed it as ALS. After two years of being diagnosed, he could not talk anymore, and since technology has been getting better, he was able to use a computer to communicate by using his eyes. He eventually passed away March 17, 2020. He was a person who was physically fit, stayed active, never did drugs, and always ate healthy. So it goes to show, this disease can happen to anyone.
Reference
The John Hopking University. (2021). Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). John Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved on March 22, 2021 from the world wide web: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) | Johns Hopkins Medicine

Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Lou Gehrig’s Disease
 
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Week 5 Assignment: End- Of Life Decisions

Week 5 Assignment: End- Of Life Decisions
There are two parts to the week 5 assignments. Please complete both.

Describe some of the legal and ethical aspects associated with consent. What is the role of the organization with regards to consent?

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Define the following terms: living wills, advance medical directives, surrogate decision making, ordinary care, extraordinary care.
Assignments are to be a minimum of 2 full pages of text and 3 reputable references in proper APA format.
 
Week 5 Assignment: End- Of Life Decisions

 
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