Skeletal growth along with brain development, grow rapidly during early childhood. Although it can vary from culture to culture, the fact remains that there will be undeniably a growth spurt in physical and mental development.
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Skeletal growth along with brain development, grow rapidly during early childhood. Although it can vary from culture to culture, the fact remains that there will be undeniably a growth spurt in physical and mental development. Skeletal growth is what is the most obvious during development. We notice the physical changes of children getting taller, thinner, baby teeth falling out and even facial maturity. Brain development is noticeable over a period of time. Memory, language, attention, and coordination can all be indicators of mental development.
Asthma is said to be the most chronic disease in child development. It is defined as “a condition in which your airways narrow and swell and produce extra mucus. This can make breathing difficult and trigger coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath” (Clinic, 2016). Factors that have a major influence on asthma are pre and post birth smoking environments. Another factor that grossly effects asthma is air pollution. “Air pollutions exposure before 2-3 years of age appear most important for asthma development” (Nina Clark, 2010). Although there is no cure for asthma, nebulizers and inhalers are used to keep it under control. This health issue is so important to me because my husband suffers from severe asthma, and I worry that it will be passed down to our young daughters.
During the preschool age, children learn how to regulator their physical development and movement patterns through physical activities & play. Gross motor skills are essential for running jumping and throwing throwing. Gross motor skills develop faster than fine motor development skills, which progress at a slower pace during this age range. Physical activities that develop and nurture preschoolers’ coordination, fine motor skills and gross motor skills will benefit them to progress physically and it may also increase their interactions and performance times with one another. Educating children about having a healthy lifestyle and encouraging a positive body image is critically imperative at this age. The most vital way for parents to assist children in developing a lifestyle of healthy attitudes and behaviors towards food and exercise is to train, to demonstrate, and to encourage correct eating and activity patterns. It is also imperative to continue to deliver children with love and nurturing that builds string, positive self – images based on attributes other than appearance is important as well.
It is extremely important for child’s health development to be assessed and observed. This is the period in which young children reach their developmental milestones emotional, cognitive and motor skills. During this time young children are at risk of many health conditions, one that is extremely known is obesity. Childhood obesity raise the risk for cardiovascular disease and can affect every organ system in the body. For this reason it is imperative to detect this disease at an early stage to ensure that the needed treatment are given to maintain a healthy weight throughout life. There are very limited management programs therefore it is crucial to create a well balanced nutrition plan, emphasizes exercise are very critical. There is an increase recognition of rare monogenic variants causing severe early Kinsey obesity. Some genetic cause such as leptin deficiency or Prader-Willi Syndrome though rare, maybe amenable to treatment and inform to societal attitudes towards severe obesity.
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Miguel Soto-Escobar is a five-year-old Hispanic kindergarten student. He is an English language learner who was considered low birth weight being born at five pounds. Miguel’s most significant challenge is language which is compounded by a speech disorder. He has difficulty verbalizing his work and expressing himself. Miguel’s strengths include understanding directions in Spanish and physical tasks. Miguel has great fine and gross motor skills and positive interactions with his peers.
Low Birth Weight and Cognitive Development.
Miguel was born at what is considered be a low birth weight of five pounds. Low birth weight has documented effects on children’s development. Miguel’s birth weight could attribute to some of his developmental delays. Physical, cognitive, and neurobehavioral impairments are associated with low birth weight in children. Language and executive functioning issues are deficits of lower birth weights. (Browne, Jenkins, Madigan, & Plamondon, 2014).
Jean Piaget proposed the cognitive theory of development. His stages of cognitive development have shaped how we understand how children think in the earliest stages of life. Piaget believed that children learned by their experiences or exposure to the environment. According to him, children construct their own knowledge of the world based on their individual experiences. All in all, Piaget states that the best way for children to learn is by doing. He constructed his theory by building on the Montessori theory that children must do everything for themselves in order to learn. (Berk & Meyers, 2015).
Language Areas within the Brain.
Language for most people is located in the left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex. There are two structures within the cerebral cortex that assist with the areas functions, Broca’s Area and Wernicke’s Area. Broca’s area is in the front to support processing of grammar and production of language. Wernicke’s area is in the temporal lobe and comprehends word meaning. Both areas work together as to not allocate one area as responsible for specific functions. (Berk & Meyers, 2015). Impaired pronunciation in Miguel’s speech impediment could be attributed to Broca’s aphasia.
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The chosen subject for child development case study and evaluation is Gwen Cohen-Green a happy little girl who lives at home in the suburban dwelling with her parents. The family is Jewish in religion and Gwen’s parents are undergoing some marital issues according to the case study. The information about Gwen that can be utilized in analyzing developmental and cognitive theories that applies to her current behavior and attitude is her being active and switching moods form time to time. Gwen is very expressive and out rightly expresses herself through dancing and singing when she is happy but Gwen turns out to be disruptive and can be violent to other classmates when she is mad. There is also an apparent behavior of Gwen where she is a creative thinker and likes to engage in imaginative play.
Piaget’s cognitive theory explains the relationship between the child’s problematic behavior and the presence of parental conflicts. This theory can explain the disruptive behavior or Gwen in school and her failing marks. The parental conflict severity varies and it can result to different maladaptation on the coping ability of the child (Piaget, 2007). There are little information regarding the nature of the parental conflict experienced by Gwen as reflected in the case study but the intensity, the content, duration as well as resolution can all be attributed to maladaptive behaviors.
Piaget’s theory differed from empiricist theories of development, which suggest that children learn through experience, and nativist theories, which maintain humans are born with innate knowledge that gradually matures.
At Gwen’s age, the child often understands the concepts of fairness, sharing, empathy and compassion for another person’s plight. She learns to focus more on alternative perspectives and can see other possibilities to the problems or situations she faces and can absorb her parent’s marital problems and manifests itself as childhood confusion.
An aspect of Vygotsky’s theory is the idea that the potential for cognitive development depends upon the “zone of proximal development” (ZPD): a level of development attained when children engage in social behavior. Full development of the ZPD depends upon full social interaction. Vygotskys (2009) believes in social constructivism is a sociological theory of knowledge according to which human development is socially situated and knowledge is constructed through interaction with others. He proposes that when a child is exposed to constant parental issues, problems with her interaction with other child is affected considerably.