Respond on two different days who selected different alterations and factors than you, in one or more of the following ways:

Share insights on how the factor you selected impacts the cardiovascular alteration your colleague selected.

Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.

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Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.

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  Congestive heart failure (CHF)  is the inability of the heart to generate adequate cardiac output, resulting in the build-up of fluid throughout various parts of the body.  CHF increases the heart’s workload and can lead to an enlarged heart over time.  CHF affects nearly 10% of individuals aged 65 or older and is a common cause of hospital admission (Huether & McCance, 2017).

Hypertension Link to CHF

     Hypertension can lead to narrowing of the arteries causing them to lose elasticity.  The shrinkage and loss of elasticity decrease blood flow and cause your heart to work harder.  Over time the heart can become more extensive and thicker, which again increases demand and prompts the heart to work harder to meet the requirements of the body for nutrients and oxygen (American Heart Association). 

Hyperlipidemia Link to CHF

     One of the common causes of CHF is coronary artery disease (CAD), which occurs as a result of hyperlipidemia.  Hyperlipidemia is the result of fatty deposits in the arteries, also known as plaques, that lead to narrowing and decreased blood blow (American Heart Association, 2019). Some studies have suggested that specifically lowering the LDL-C benefits lowering blood pressure and some cholesterol-lowering drugs can positively affect blood pressure (Dalal et al., 2012).

The Female Link Related to Cardiovascular Disease

     The leading cause of death for women in the United States is heart disease, affecting approximately 1 in every 5. It is the leading cause of death among white and African-American women.  Risk factors include obesity, diabetes, diet, exercise, and alcohol abuse.  Useful ways to reduce risks are; have a good baseline of blood pressure and updated lab values, quit smoking, proper diet, limit alcohol and manage stress levels (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019).


American Heart Association, (2019). How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Heart Failure.  Retrieved from

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Women and Heart Disease.  Retrieved from

Dalal, J. J., Padmanabhan, T. N., Jain, P., Patil, S., Vasnawala, H., & Gulati, A. (2012). LIPITENSION: Interplay between dyslipidemia and hypertension. Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism, 16(2), 240–245. doi:10.4103/2230-8210.93742

Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

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