Fred, a fit and healthy 44-year-old, was working outside one warm summer afternoon. When he returned home by the end of the day, his lower back felt sore and he felt nauseated. His wife made him dinner, but he was not hungry and chose to go to bed instead. Fred’s symptoms progressed, and soon he was rolling on the bed with excruciating pain. He said his back hurt as well as his stomach and groin area. The pain would ease off only to return a short while later, and when it did, Fred would begin to sweat and run to the bathroom to vomit. His wife became concerned and she helped him into the car and rushed him to the hospital.

Please answer the following questions and submit your assignment via Blackboard by the due date.

1. At the hospital, an abdominal radiograph showed the presence of renal calculi in Fred’s right ureter (urolithiasis).  What is the pathophysiological mechanism of stone formation in the kidney? 

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2. In the hospital, Fred’s urine is being strained for the presence of stones that he may have passed. What is the importance of this action?

3. What are the 4 primary types of renal calculi and what are the risk factors for each of these types of renal calculi? 

4. Hydronephrosis can be a complication of renal calculi. Why is hydronephrosis such a serious complication? 

5. View the following youtube video entitled “How do kidney stones form?” 

Identify two key points that you learned about renal calculi in the video? 

 This is the grading  criteria :
Grading:Subject Knowledge and Accuracy (6 points)

  • Normal physiological principles, processes, and mechanisms are explained at the molecular, cellular, and organ levels.
  • Physiological processes and mechanisms relating to the pathology are clearly explained.
  • Answers focus on substantive ideas that are supported by relevant facts and examples.
  • Explanations are clear and incorporate appropriate vocabulary.
  • Thoughtful and convincing responses clearly demonstrate depth of subject knowledge.
  • Information is derived from good quality, credible sources.
  • All questions are answered completely.
  • All content is current and accurate.

Bibliography / Citations / Writing (3 points)

  • Two (2) or more sources used for the assignment (your textbook can be one of the sources).
  • All material that is not considered “common knowledge” is cited. 
  • All quotations and/or paraphrasing are cited according to APA format. 
  • The full reference for each citation is found in the bibliography.
  • References are listed alphabetically at end of assignment in the bibliography.
  • Bibliography and citations follow APA format.
  • Writing is free of grammatical errors.
  • Sentences are complete, clear, and concise.
  • Spelling is correct.

This book should be used as reference also:
Porth’s Pathophysiology: Concepts of Altered Health States (9th edition) ISBN-13: 978-1451146004ISBN-10: 1451146000 

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